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Table 1 Characteristics of control and pre-diabetic participants

From: The dietary acid load is higher in subjects with prediabetes who are at greater risk of diabetes: a case–control study

Variables Control Pre-diabetic P-value
(n = 150) (n = 147)
Age (years)
 45< 57 (18.5) 55 (19.2) 0.9*
 45–55 69 (23.9) 68 (22.9)  
 55> 24 (8.1) 24 (8.1)  
Sex, n (%)
 Male 51 (17.2) 50 (16.8) 0.9*
 Female 99 (33.3) 97 (32.7)  
Education (years) 6.9 ± 3.8 8.8 ± 4.8 < 0.001**
Weight (kg) 72.4 ± 11.4 77.7 ± 12.7 < 0.001*
BMI (kg/m2) 27.1 ± 3.6 29.3 ± 4.2 < 0.001*
WC (cm) 88.6 ± 9.9 94.1 ± 11.4 < 0.001*
PA level
 Low 37 (15.5) 89 (30) < 0.001*
 Medium 91 (30.6) 42 (14.1)  
 High 22 (7.4) 16 (5.4)  
Energy intake (Kcal/day) 2278.4 ± 630.9 2499.2 ± 719.5 0.005
Fiber intake (g/day) 17.18 ± 5.16 13.62 ± 5.20 < 0.001**
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 118 + 10.9 122.6 + 12.9 0.002**
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.4 + 7.7 78.6 + 10.5 < 0.001**
FBG (mg/dl) 82.1 ± 7.1 109.1 ± 6.5 < 0.001**
2-h OGTT (mg/dl) 120.4 ± 9.5 143.3 ± 18.1 < 0.001**
NEAP (mEq/day) 33.3 ± 10.8 45.5 ± 14.05 < 0.001**
PRAL (mEq/day) − 17.3 ± 17.7 − 1.2 ± 21.6 < 0.001**
  1. Data expressed as Mean ± standard deviation or number (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, PA physical activity, FBG fasting blood glucose, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, NEAP net endogenous acid production, PRAL potential renal acid load
  3. * P-value is for Chi square test
  4. ** P-value is for Mann–Whitney test
  5. Independent t test