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Table 2 Results of subgroup-analysis for neck circumference and glycemic parameters

From: Neck circumference in relation to glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

  No. of effect sizes Fisher’s Z (95% CI) P withina I2 (%) P betweenb
Subgroup analyses for NC and FBG
 Race < 0.001
  USA 8 0.23 (0.15 to 0.31) < 0.001 87.1  
  Mideast 4 0.21 (0.04 to 0.37) < 0.001 93.4  
  Asian 17 0.15 (0.12 to 0.18) < 0.001 82.0  
  Latin America 4 0.20 (0.17 to 0.23) 0.241 28.5  
  European 2 0.45 (0.28 to 0.62) 0.170 46.9  
 Adjustments 0.055
  Yes 22 0.18 (0.14 to 0.21) < 0.001 87.5  
  No 13 0.20 (0.15 to 0.24) < 0.001 85.8  
 Correlation type 0.059
  Pearson 30 0.18 (0.15 to 0.21) < 0.001 87.5  
  Spearman 5 0.25 (0.14 to 0.36) < 0.001 82.1  
 Health status 0.045
  Patients 4 0.17 (0.07 to 0.28) 0.084 54.8  
  Healthy 31 0.19 (0.16 to 0.21) < 0.001 87.7  
 Sampling method 0.007
  Consecutive 6 0.25 (0.16 to 0.34) < 0.001 79.5  
  Random 19 0.16 (0.13 to 0.20) < 0.001 90.5  
  Non-random 10 0.21 (0.15 to 0.28) < 0.001 71.4  
Subgroup analyses for NC and serum fasting insulin level
 Race < 0.001
  USA 5 0.43 (0.34 to 0.53) < 0.001 81.1  
  Mideast 2 0.33 (0.22 to 0.44) 0.015 83.1  
  Asian 2 0.10 (0.06 to 0.13) 0.640 0.0  
  Latin America 4 0.36 (0.29 to 0.43) < 0.001 87.0  
  European 2 0.41 (0.24 to 0.58) 0.178 44.8  
 Adjustments 0.35
  Yes 12 0.34 (0.25 to 0.42) < 0.001 96.5  
  No 3 0.33 (0.12 to 0.55) 0.014 76.5  
 Correlation type 0.016
  Pearson 11 0.34 (0.25 to 0.43) < 0.001 96.8  
  Spearman 4 0.32 (0.22 to 0.41) 0.089 54.0  
 Health status 0.35
  Patients 3 0.32 (0.22 to 0.42) 0.014 76.5  
  Healthy 12 0.37 (0.36 to 0.38) < 0.001 96.5  
 Sampling method 0.001
  Consecutive 1 0.55 (0.36 to 0.75)  
  Random 8 0.34 (0.24 to 0.45) < 0.001 97.7  
  Non-random 6 0.29 (0.22 to 0.36) 0.137 40.2  
Subgroup analyses for NC and HOMA-IR
 Race < 0.001
  USA 3 0.53 (0.49 to 0.57) 0.122 52.6  
  Mideast 2 0.34 (0.28 to 0.39) 0.222 32.9  
  Asian 5 0.20 (0.13 to 0.270 < 0.001 85.0  
  Latin America 4 0.43 (0.39 to 0.48) 0.010 73.4  
  European 2 0.39 (0.27 to 0.52) 0.885 0.0  
 Adjustments < 0.001
  Yes 14 0.38 (0.31 to 0.45) < 0.001 95.3  
  No 2 0.24 (0.13 to 0.36) 0.001 90.1  
 Correlation type 0.547
  Pearson 12 0.35 (0.27 to 0.43) < 0.001 96.8  
  Spearman 4 0.40 (0.33 to 0.47) 0.248 27.3  
 Health status 0.001
  Patients 1 0.48 (0.43 to 0.54)  
  Healthy 15 0.35 (0.28 to 0.42) < 0.001 95.9  
 Sampling method 0.701
  Random 11 0.36 (0.28 to 0.44) < 0.001 97.1  
  Non-random 5 0.39 (0.32 to 0.46) 0.266 23.3  
Subgroup analyses for NC and HbA1c
 Race < 0.001
  USA 4 0.23 (0.15 to 0.32) 0.168 40.6  
  Asian 7 0.05 (0.02 to 0.09) 0.025 58.4  
  Latin America 2 0.21 (0.15 to 0.27) 0.879 0.0  
  European 2 0.20 (0.07 to 0.32) 0.797 0.0  
 Adjustments < 0.001
  Yes 10 0.17 (0.10 to 0.24) < 0.001 81.6  
  No 5 0.06 (0.00 to 0.11) 0.015 67.4  
 Correlation type < 0.001
  Pearson 11 0.12 (0.06 to 0.18) < 0.001 88.9  
  Spearman 4 0.20 (0.15 to 0.26) 0.992 0.0  
 Health status < 0.001
  Patients 4 0.23 (0.15 to 0.32) 0.168 40.6  
  Healthy 11 0.11 (0.06 to 0.15) < 0.001 78.7  
 Sampling method < 0.001
  Consecutive 1 0.10 (− 0.10 to 0.29)  
  Random 5 0.10 (0.01 to 0.18) < 0.001 94.8  
  Non-random 9 0.18 (0.13 to 0.23) 0.281 18.2  
  1. aP for heterogeneity, within subgroup
  2. bP for heterogeneity, between subgroup