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Table 4 Association of risk factors for quartile of HOMA-IR in metabolic disorders

From: Insulin resistance exhibits varied metabolic abnormalities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic hepatitis B and the combination of the two: a cross-sectional study

  OR (95% CI)a
All CHB NAFLD CHB with NAFLD
Hypertension
 HOMA-IR Q1 Referenceb 0.94 (0.57–1.54) 3.57 (1.89–6.75) 2.44 (0.90––6.60)
 HOMA-IR Q2 1.72 (1.19–2.50) 1.94 (1.19–3.16) 3.73 (2.29–6.06) 3.15 (1.45–6.87)
 HOMA-IR Q3 2.78 (1.98–3.91) 1.50 (0.91–2.48) 3.99 (2.73–5.85) 6.68 (3.73–12.0)
 HOMA-IR Q4 6.69 (4.79–9.34) 4.40 (2.64–7.36) 7.75 (5.39–11.2) 7.44 (4.55–12.2)
 P for trend 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.006
Hypertriglyceridemia
 HOMA-IR Q1 Reference 0.77 (0.49–1.21) 6.52 (3.81–11.1) 3.18 (1.38–7.37)
 HOMA-IR Q2 2.31 (1.69–3.16) 1.37 (0.86–2.18) 8.38 (5.56–12.6) 4.90 (2.58–9.34)
 HOMA-IR Q3 5.92 (4.45–7.87) 2.29 (1.53–3.42) 17.0 (12.2–23.7) 6.37 (3.68–11.0)
 HOMA-IR Q4 9.48 (7.05–12.8) 3.22 (1.98–5.23) 18.8 (13.4–26.4) 4.43 (2.74–7.15)
 P for trend 0.02 0.02 0.004 0.11
High LDL-c
 HOMA-IR Q1 Reference 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 2.60 (1.54–4.37) 2.90 (1.39–6.01)
 HOMA-IR Q2 1.28 (0.98–1.66) 1.31 (0.90–1.90) 2.96 (2.02–4.35) 2.01 (1.06–3.83)
 HOMA-IR Q3 2.29 (1.80–2.91) 1.39 (0.98–1.97) 3.55 (2.67–4.73) 4.70 (2.80–7.90)
 HOMA-IR Q4 4.64 (3.61–5.97) 2.59 (1.68–3.99) 5.01 (3.75–6.69) 6.97 (4.50–10.8)
 P for trend 0.07 0.07 0.005 0.03
Hyperuricemia
 HOMA-IR Q1 Reference 1.14 (0.82–1.59) 2.53 (1.48–4.32) 3.19 (1.52–6.70)
 HOMA-IR Q2 1.25 (0.95–1.65) 1.10 (0.73–1.66) 2.95 (2.00–4.37) 2.74 (1.47–5.14)
 HOMA-IR Q3 2.56 (2.00–3.28) 1.64 (1.14–2.34) 4.19 (3.13–5.61) 3.33 (1.96–5.68)
 HOMA-IR Q4 4.96 (3.83–6.42) 2.15 (1.36–3.38) 6.45 (4.80–8.67) 6.21 (4.02–9.58)
 P for trend 0.06 0.03 0.005 0.04
Metabolic symptoms
 HOMA-IR Q1 Reference 0.27 (0.10–0.80) 10.5 (5.50–19.9) 2.44 (0.70–8.56)
 HOMA-IR Q2 2.55 (1.60–4.08) 0.74 (0.30–1.81) 9.15 (5.35–15.6) 7.06 (3.17–15.7)
 HOMA-IR Q3 9.62 (6.34–14.6) 3.62 (2.11–6.23) 24.0 (15.5–37.3) 9.17 (4.71–17.9)
 HOMA-IR Q4 27.4 (18.0–41.7) 8.34 (4.67–14.9) 46.0 (29.5–71.8) 23.2 (13.4–40.1)
 P for trend 0.08 0.07 0.02 0.03
High ALT level
 HOMA-IR Q1 Reference 1.68 (1.27–2.21) 2.22 (1.33–3.73) 2.71 (1.32–5.58)
 HOMA-IR Q2 1.17 (0.78–1.28) 1.70 (1.22–2.36) 2.10 (1.42–3.09) 3.19 (1.75–5.80)
 HOMA-IR Q3 2.01 (1.60–2.53) 2.23 (1.63–3.05) 2.79 (2.11–3.70) 3.22 (1.92–5.40)
 HOMA-IR Q4 4.87 (3.82–6.23) 3.59 (2.39–5.39) 4.89 (3.66–6.53) 8.21 (5.18–13.0)
 P for trend 0.10 0.21 0.03 0.052
Liver fat content (mild vs. moderate and severe)
 HOMA-IR Q1    Reference Reference
 HOMA-IR Q2    1.12 (0.48–3.35) 1.45 (0.12–17.2)
 HOMA-IR Q3    2.19 (0.94–5.11) 2.79 (0.33–24.0)
 HOMA-IR Q4    10.92 (4.59–25.9) 20.3 (2.49–30.1)
 P for trend    0.029 0.039
  1. P for trend was calculated for the logistic regression analysis tests across the groups
  2. HOMA-IR was categorized by 1.10, 1.60, and 2.70, for the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles of HOMA-IR, represented by HOMA-IR Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4
  3. Metabolic symptom was diagnosis as meeting at least three of the following criteria: (1) Waistline > 90 cm (male) and > 80 cm (female) and/or body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2; (2) elevated BPs (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 125 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 70 mmHg); (3) low HDL-C level; (4) fasting serum triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L; (5) fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as a total CHOL level > 5.2 mmol/L. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as a TG level > 1.7 mmol/L. A low HDL-C level was defined as an HDL-C level < 1.0 mmol/L. A high LDL-C level was defined as an LDL-C level > 3.4 mmol/L. Hyperuricemia was defined as males and females at > 420 and 360 µmol/L, respectively. The normal upper limit for ALT and AST were 40 and 37 U/L, respectively
  4. aAdjusted for gender and age
  5. bHomeostasis model assessment insulin resistance first quartile (HOMA-IR Q1) of all subjects was set as reference