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Table 5 Clinics of pregnant women according to the HNF1A gene p.I27L

From: Maternal genetic contribution to pre-pregnancy obesity, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus

  GG wild (n = 83) GT (n = 172) TT (n = 50) p* p** p***
Controls (%) 60.2 (n = 50) 45.3 (n = 78) 34.0 (n = 17) 0.026 0.003 0.153
Gestational diabetes mellitus (%) 39.8 (n = 33) 54.7 (n = 94) 66.0 (n = 33)    
Pre-pregnancy BMI (%)     0.653 0.622 0.695
 Underweight (< 20 kg/m2) 15.7 13.4 8.0    
 Normal weight (20–24.9 kg/m2) 21.7 23.3 24.0    
 Overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) 33.7 27.9 34.0    
 Obesity (≥ 30 kg/m2) 28.9 35.5 34.0    
Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (%)a 62.7 (n = 52) 63.4 (n = 109) 68.0 (n = 34) 0.911 0.532 0.547
Gestational weight gain (%)b     0.112 0.804 0.342
 Below 3.6 9.4 6.0    
 Adequate 45.8 35.1 46.0    
 Excessive 50.6 55.6 48.0    
Excessive GWG (%) 50.6 (n = 42) 55.8 (n = 96) 48.0 (n = 24) 0.434 0.771 0.329
Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) 67.93 ± 13.64 70.12 ± 14.28 68.94 ± 11.42 0.247 0.665 0.592
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 26.78 ± 5.74 27.51 ± 6.06 27.35 ± 5.24 0.364 0.568 0.870
Weight at delivery (kg) 81.84 ± 13.34 83.56 ± 13.50 81.98 ± 10.73 0.338 0.951 0.445
BMI at delivery (kg/m2) 32.25 ± 5.66 32.77 ± 5.88 32.50 ± 5.13 0.503 0.795 0.772
Gestational weight gain (kg) 14.02 ± 4.60 13.67 ± 4.83 13.24 ± 4.98 0.583 0.359 0.434
Glucose (mg/dl) 83.89 ± 17.10 86.88 ± 17.69 94.06 ± 18.23 0.203 0.002 0.013
İnsulin (µIU/ml) 9.52 ± 3.16 10.30 ± 4.76 10.64 ± 4.09 0.215 0.108 0.681
HOMA-IR 2.10 ± 1.01 2.36 ± 1.37 2.54 ± 1.23 0.155 0.045 0.470
HbA1c (%) 5.15 ± 0.40 5.29 ± 0.50 5.32 ± 0.41 0.048 0.037 0.736
Systolic BP (mmHg) 109.93 ± 10.07 109.27 ± 10.26 109.70 ± 10.37 0.626 0.896 0.797
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.20 ± 5.47 73.11 ± 5.26 72.94 ± 5.63 0.901 0.790 0.838
  1. Italics represents significant p-values
  2. PPO pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GWG gestational weight gain, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c
  3. *p wild GG vs heterozygote GT
  4. **p wild GG vs homozygote TT
  5. ***p heterozygote GT vs homozygote TT
  6. aPrepregnancy overweight/obesity is defined as the percentage of subjects with having BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2
  7. bRecommended GWG was calculated based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations according to pre-pregnancy BMI