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Table 4 Clinics of pregnants according to the FTO gene rs9939609 SNP

From: Maternal genetic contribution to pre-pregnancy obesity, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus

  TT-wild (n = 132) AT (n = 116) AA (n = 57) p* p** p***
Controls (%) 55.3 (n = 73) 46.6 (n = 54) 31.6 (n = 18) 0.169 0.003 0.060
Gestational diabetes mellitus (%) 44.7 (n = 59) 53.4 (n = 62) 68.4 (n = 39)    
Pre-pregnancy BMI (%)     < 0.001 0.001 0.011
 Underweight (< 20 kg/m2) 18.2 10.3 7.0    
 Normal weight (20–24.9 kg/m2) 33.3 16.4 12.3    
 Overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) 19.7 44.8 26.3    
 Obesity (≥ 30 kg/m2) 28.8 28.4 54.4    
Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (%)a 48.5 (n = 64) 73.3 (n = 85) 80.7 (n = 46) < 0.001 0.001 0.284
Gestational weight gain (%)b     0.001 < 0.001 0.014
 Below 12.1 3.4 3.6    
 Adequate 51.5 37.9 16.1    
 Excessive 36.4 58.6 80.4    
Excessive GWG (%) 36.4 (n = 48) 58.6 (n = 68) 80.4 (n = 46) 0.001 < 0.001 0.003
Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) 65.79 ± 13.80 69.69 ± 11.31 76.78 ± 14.81 0.016 < 0.001 0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 25.80 ± 5.80 27.46 ± 5.03 30.36 ± 6.27 0.017 < 0.001 0.001
Weight at delivery (kg) 78.52 ± 13.01 83.84 ± 9.80 90.78 ± 14.79 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
BMI at delivery (kg/m2) 30.77 ± 5.56 33.03 ± 4.72 35.86 ± 6.22 0.001 < 0.001 0.001
Gestational weight gain (kg) 10.93 ± 3.77 12.93 ± 2.31 13.98 ± 4.91 0.029 0.021 0.654
Glucose (mg/dl) 84.64 ± 18.01 88.06 ± 17.65 91.64 ± 17.25 0.134 0.014 0.207
İnsulin (µIU/ml) 9.61 ± 4.35 10.18 ± 3.72 11.27 ± 4.89 0.315 0.039 0.148
HOMA-IR 2.16 ± 1.26 2.33 ± 1.18 2.65 ± 1.37 0.307 0.033 0.159
HbA1c (%) 5.22 ± 0.48 5.24 ± 0.41 5.41 ± 0.51 0.685 0.018 0.027
Systolic BP (mmHg) 110.41 ± 9.59 108.87 ± 10.61 108.77 ± 10.74 0.232 0.298 0.951
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.74 ± 5.43 72.81 ± 5.03 72.24 ± 5.75 0.169 0.090 0.503
  1. Italics represents significant p-values
  2. PPO pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GWG gestational weight gain, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c
  3. *p TT wild type vs heterozygote AT
  4. **p TT wild type vs homozygote AA
  5. ***p heterozygote AT vs homozygote AA
  6. aPrepregnancy overweight/obesity is defined as the percentage of subjects with having BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2
  7. bRecommended gestational weight gain was calculated based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations according to pre-pregnancy BMI