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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects

From: Maternal genetic contribution to pre-pregnancy obesity, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus

  Controls (n = 145) Gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 160) p
Age (year) 28.25 ± 5.15 29.35 ± 5.36 0.075
Gestational age (weeks) 26.27 ± 1.48 25.99 ± 1.65 0.137
Height (cm) 160.40 ± 5.71 159.21 ± 5.95 0.076
Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) 61.74 ± 11.98 76.21 ± 11.27 0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 24.06 ± 4.82 30.21 ± 5.10 0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (%)    0.001
 Underweight (< 20 kg/m2) 23.4 3.8  
 Normal weight (20–24.9 kg/m2) 38.6 8.8  
 Overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) 26.2 34.4  
 Obesity (≥ 30 kg/m2) 11.7 53.1  
Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (%)a 37.9 87.5 0.001
Weight at delivery (kg) 77.60 ± 12.59 87.58 ± 11.54 0.001
BMI at delivery (kg/m2) 30.24 ± 5.18 34.71 ± 5.30 0.001
Gestational weight gain (kg) 16.05 ± 5.43 11.56 ± 2.72 0.001
Gestational weight gain (%)b    0.011
 Excessive 44.1 61.2  
 Adequate 46.9 33.1  
 Below 9.0 5.6  
Glucose (mg/dl) 72.39 ± 7.12 101.67 ± 11.99 0.001
İnsulin (µIU/ml) 8.07 ± 2.02 11.93 ± 4.78 0.001
HOMA-IR 1.42 ± 0.39 3.06 ± 1.26 0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.01 ± 0.32 5.51 ± 0.43 0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 108.06 ± 8.74 110.84 ± 11.23 0.052
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 72.70 ± 5.62 73.48 ± 5.11 0.207
  1. Italics represents significant p-values
  2. PPO pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GWG gestational weight gain, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c
  3. aPrepregnancy overweight/obesity is defined as the percentage of subjects with having BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2
  4. bRecommended gestational weight gain was calculated based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations according to pre-pregnancy BMI