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Table 1 Baseline characteristics as a function of the median of adiponectin levels

From: Serum concentration and vascular expression of adiponectin are differentially associated with the diabetic calcifying peripheral arteriopathy

  All n = 197 Adiponectin < 3.5 µg/mL n = 98 Adiponectin ≥ 3.5 µg/mL n = 99 P
Adiponectin (µg/mL) 4.1 ± 2.6 (3.5) 2.5 ± 0.6 (2.6) 5.7 ± 2.8 (5.0) NA
Age (years) 64 ± 8 62 ± 9 67 ± 8 < 0.0001
Diabetes duration (years) 15 ± 10 14 ± 9 15 ± 9 0.322
Male gender n (%) 157 (80) 86 (88) 71 (72) 0.007
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29 ± 5 29 ±5 29 ± 6 0.441
SBP (mmHg) 127 ± 17 125 ± 17 129 ± 17 0.123
DBP (mmHg) 73 ± 9 73 ± 9 73 ± 9 0.472
Smoking habit n (%) 118 (60) 69 (70) 49 (50) 0.004
Previous CVD n (%) 138 (70) 71 (72) 67 (68) 0.534
Glycaemia (mmol/L) 8.2 ± 2.8 (7.8) 8.3 ± 2.8 (7.8) 8.0 ± 2.8 (7.4) 0.391
HbA1c (%) 7.8 ± 1.5 (7.5) 7.8 ± 1.4 (7.7) 7.7 ± 1.5 (7.4) 0.408
GFR MDRD (mmol/L) 76 ± 20 80 ± 19 72 ± 20 0.003
Microalbuminuria (mg/L) 166 ± 842 (23) 100 ± 322 (20) 230 ± 1144 (23) 0.328
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.30 ± 0.11 2.32 ± 0.09 2.32 ± 0.13 0.885
Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.02 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.15 1.04 ± 0.16 0.165
Intact PTH (pg/mL) 54.7 ± 27.5 (46.9) 48.8 ± 24.7 (42.9 60.6 ± 29.0 (54.0) 0.001
25(OH)Vit D (ng/mL) 13.8 ± 8.4 (12.0) 14.0 ± 8.7 (12.0) 13.7 ± 8.1 (12.0) 0.924
hsCRP (mg/L) 2.2 ± 1.5 (1.2) 2.5 ± 2.6 (1.5) 1.9 ± 2.3 (0.8) 0.035
IL6 (pg/mL) 5 ± 22 (3) 7 ± 31 (3) 3.3 ± 3.9 (2.7) 0.045
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 1.1 (1.3) 1.8 ± 1.2 (1.4) 1.4 ± 0.8 (1.1) 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.7 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 0.9 0.146
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.9 ± 0.7 (1.8) 1.9 ± 0.7 (1.8) 2.0 ± 0.8 (1.8) 0.097
Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol 3.7 ± 1.6 (3.5) 4.1 ± 1.9 (3.7) 3.4 ± 1.0 (3.3) < 0.0001
NDS 2.4 ± 2.4 (2.4) 2.1 ± 2.4 (2) 2.7 ± 2.4 (2) 0.035
Peripheral calcification score 2528 ± 5779 (524) 1818 ± 5283 (290) 3239 ± 6204 (1044) 0.004
Occlusive score 3.5 ± 5.3 2.8 ± 4.8 4.2 ± 5.7 0.034
Insulin use n (%) 93 (47) 45 (46) 48 (49) 0.414
Metformin use n (%) 160 (81) 88 (90) 72 (73) 0.002
Statin use n (%) 175 (89) 88 (90) 87 (88) 0.421
ARB and ACE inhibitors use n (%) 158 (80) 81 (83) 77 (78) 0.249
  1. Data are given as mean ± SD for normally distributed measures with addition of (median) for non-normally distributed values for variables with a non-Gaussian distribution or as the number (percentage) for binary variables; variables mentioned in italic are variables distributed significantly different in both groups
  2. NA not applicable, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CVD cardiovascular disease, HbA1c haemoglobin A1C, GFR MDRD glomerular filtration rate calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease formula, PTH parathyroid hormone, hsCRP high sensibility C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin 6, NDS neuropathy disability score