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Table 1 Characteristics of the newly diagnosed diabetic participants

From: Prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypertension and metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

Variables Type 1 diabetes (n = 83) Ketosis-onset diabetes (n = 279) Non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (n = 372) P- value P- value
Age (years) 44 ± 21 50 ± 15 55 ± 14 < 0.001 < 0.001
Male (n,  %) 47 (56.6%) 194 (69.5%) 223 (59.9%) 0.018 0.018
Smoking (n,  %) 19 (22.9%) 106 (38.0%) 122 (32.8%) 0.026 0.161
Alcohol (n,  %) 9 (10.8%) 58 (20.8%) 73 (19.6%) 0.106 0.185
SBP (mmHg) 121 ± 14 125 ± 16 128 ± 17 < 0.001 0.038
DBP (mmHg) 76 ± 9 80 ± 10 81 ± 10 < 0.001 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 21.6 ± 4 24.4 ± 3.7 24.8 ± 3.4 < 0.001 < 0.001
WHR 0.86 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.06 0.91 ± 0.06 < 0.001 < 0.001
FPG (mmol/l)a 7.7 (5.6–11.1) 9.4 (7.2–12.1) 7.8 (6.5–10) < 0.001 < 0.001
2-hPPG (mmol/l)a 13.1 (9.8–17.7) 15.4 (12.2–19.3) 13.8 (10.7–17.3) < 0.001 < 0.001
HbA1C (%) 11.11 ± 3.32 11.56 ± 2.51 10.03 ± 2.68 < 0.001 < 0.001
FCP (ng/ml)a 0.57 (0.27–1.19) 1.08 (0.5–1.83) 1.93 (1.27–2.85) < 0.001 < 0.001
2-h PCP (ng/ml)a 1.26 (0.59–2.46) 2.04 (0.99–3.63) 4.31 (2.66–5.73) < 0.001 < 0.001
HOMA2- %S 184.9 (86.6–344.43) 97.8 (55–193.2) 61.1 (41.53–90.85) < 0.001 < 0.001
HOMA2-IR 0.55 (0.3–1.15) 1 (0.5–1.8) 1.6 (1.1–2.4) < 0.001 < 0.001
TC (mmol/l) 4.46 ± 1 4.75 ± 1.17 4.75 ± 1.17 0.101 0.029
TG (mmol/l)a 1.04 (0.7–1.53) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) < 0.001 0.010
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.24 ± 0.36 1.07 ± 0.34 1.10 ± 0.28 < 0.001 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.83 ± 0.89 3.12 ± 0.95 3.19 ± 1.00 0.010 0.002
ALT (U/l)a 20 (13–29) 22 (14–37) 22 (15–39) 0.380 0.534
SCr (μmol/l)a 61 (50–75) 66 (55–76) 66 (54–78) 0.096 0.924
SUA (μmol/l)a 264 (226–319) 279 (220–351) 311 (251–373) < 0.001 < 0.001
UAE (mg/24 h)a 8.0 (5.2–12.5) 9.4 (6.4–20) 10.2 (6.5–19.6) 0.006 0.644
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)a 123 (100–163) 121 (101–145) 115 (95–135) 0.002 0.003
CRP (mg/l)a 0.57 (0.2–1.63) 1.1 (0.49–3.48) 1.26 (0.53–2.96) < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as means and standard deviations, or medians with interquartile range, or percentages
  2. P value: crude P-values
  3. P-value: ‡P-values adjusted for age and gender
  4. aNon-normal distribution of quantitative variables