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Table 2 Clinical characteristics, medical history, and presenting symptoms of acute ischemic stroke patients with a history of diabetes stratified by rtPA status and telestroke status

From: The telestroke and thrombolysis therapy in diabetic stroke patients

Characteristic Non-telestroke Telestroke
No rtPA rtPA P-value No rtPA rtPA P-value
(N = 112) (N = 68) (N = 18) (N = 114)
Patient age in years
 Mean ± SD 70.8 ± 12 66.8 ± 13.5 0.043* 66.9 ± 13.2 65.8 ± 12.2 0.727
Age group: no. (%)
 < 50 years 6 (5.4) 8 (11.8) 0.014 1 (5.6) 10 (8.8) 0.362
 50–59 16 (14.3) 10 (14.7)   5 (27.8) 15 (13.2)  
 60–69 20 (17.9) 23 (33.8)   5 (27.8) 44 (38.6)  
 70–79 42 (37.5) 12 (17.6)   3 (16.7) 30 (26.3)  
 ≥ 80 28 (25) 15 (22.1)   4 (22.2) 15 (13.2)  
Gender: no. (%)
 Male 49 (43.8) 39 (57.4) 0.077 9 (50) 60 (52.6) 0.835
 Female 63 (56.3) 29 (42.6)   9 (50) 54 (47.4)  
Race: no. (%)     (0) (0)  
 Caucasian 73 (65.2) 54 (79.4) 0.6 14 (77.8) 88 (77.2) 0.74
 African-American 21 (18.8) 11 (16.2)   2 (11.1) 17 (14.9)  
 Other 3 (2.7) 0 (0)   0 (0) 3 (2.6)  
Hispanic ethnicity: no. (%) 2 (1.8) 3 (4.4) 0.917 0 (0) 6 (5.3) 0.319
Body mass index
 Mean ± SD 29.6 ± 7.6 29.1 ± 7 0.657 31 ± 7 32.4 ± 7.6 0.447
Medical history: no. (%)
 Atrial fib/flutter 30 (26.8) 9 (13.2) 0.032 2 (11.1) 9 (7.9) 0.646
 Carotid artery stenosis 10 (8.9) 2 (2.9) 0.118 0 (0) 6 (5.3) 0.319
 Congestive heart failure 21 (18.8) 7 (10.3) 0.129 4 (22.2) 13 (11.4) 0.203
 Coronary artery disease 48 (42.9) 32 (47.1) 0.582 9 (50) 53 (46.5) 0.782
 Depression 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0.435 3 (16.7) 24 (21.1) 0.668
 Dyslipidemia 76 (67.9) 48 (70.6) 0.701 13 (72.2) 79 (69.3) 0.802
 Family history of stroke 8 (7.1) 6 (8.8) 0.683 0 (0) 24 (21.1) 0.031
 Hormone replacement therapy 2 (1.8) 1 (1.5) 0.873 0 (0) 3 (2.6) 0.486
 Hypertension 103 (92) 62 (91.2) 0.853 16 (88.9) 107 (93.9) 0.437
 Migraine 1 (0.9) 4 (5.9) 0.048 1 (5.6) 3 (2.6) 0.501
 Obesity 48 (42.9) 30 (44.1) 0.869 12 (66.7) 73 (64) 0.828
 Peripheral vascular disease 17 (15.2) 6 (8.8) 0.216 1 (5.6) 10 (8.8) 0.646
 Previous stroke 50 (44.6) 23 (33.8) 0.152 5 (27.8) 26 (22.8) 0.644
 Previous TIA 13 (11.6) 9 (13.2) 0.746 2 (11.1) 7 (6.1) 0.437
 Prosthetic heart valve 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0.435 (0) (0)  
 Renal insufficiency 20 (17.9) 4 (5.9) 0.022 1 (5.6) 8 (7) 0.819
 Smoking 23 (20.5) 18 (26.5) 0.357 4 (22.2) 21 (18.4) 0.702
 Substance abuse 2 (1.8) 3 (4.4) 0.299 0 (0) 2 (1.8) 0.571
Initial NIH stroke scale
 Mean ± SD 10.3 ± 9.2 11.3 ± 7.8 0.462 10.7 ± 9.4 8.6 ± 7.4 0.34
Initial labs and vitals
 Total cholesterol 168.1 ± 62.8 162.4 ± 48.4 0.547 160.9 ± 53 165.7 ± 42 0.682
 Triglycerides 157.6 ± 125.1 157 ± 109.7 0.976 128.4 ± 68.7 163.9 ± 110.1 0.213
 HDL 40.2 ± 14.1 38.3 ± 11 0.379 38.4 ± 13.5 37.8 ± 11.5 0.843
 LDL 95.2 ± 34.3 96.6 ± 39.4 0.816 98.9 ± 50.6 98.3 ± 32.7 0.945
 Lipids 7.8 ± 2.2 7.3 ± 1.9 0.171 7.6 ± 2.4 7.6 ± 2.1 0.945
 Blood glucose 210.9 ± 126.8 171 ± 88.3 0.014* 184.2 ± 133.1 171.3 ± 90.6 0.602
 Creatinine 1.6 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 0.7 0.032* 1.6 ± 2.3 1.2 ± 0.6 0.375
 INR 1.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.1 0.002* 1.2 ± 0.5 1 ± 0.1 0.347
 Heart rate 85.5 ± 21.2 81.8 ± 15.2 0.216 77.9 ± 15.4 80.8 ± 17.1 0.505
 Systolic blood pressure 155.1 ± 35 157.3 ± 30.1 0.669 151.7 ± 22 150.4 ± 24 0.835
 Diastolic blood pressure 82.5 ± 20.6 80.7 ± 16.8 0.555 77.8 ± 14.4 79 ± 17.5 0.779
Medications prior to admission: no. (%)
 Antiplatelet or anticoagulant 72 (64.3) 40 (58.8) 0.464 12 (66.7) 67 (58.8) 0.525
 Antihypertensive 93 (83) 57 (83.8) 0.891 14 (77.8) 100 (87.7) 0.253
 Cholesterol reducer 70 (62.5) 43 (63.2) 0.921 15 (83.3) 76 (66.7) 0.156
 Diabetic medication 78 (69.6) 50 (73.5) 0.577 12 (66.7) 88 (77.2) 0.333
Ambulation status prior to event: no. (%)     (0) (0)  
 Ambulate independently 85 (75.9) 63 (92.6) 0.028* 15 (83.3) 106 (93) 0.511
 Ambulate with assistance 11 (9.8) 1 (1.5)   1 (5.6) 2 (1.8)  
 Unable to ambulate 8 (7.1) 3 (4.4)   (0) 4 (3.5)  
 Not documented 8 (7.1) 1 (1.5)   (0) 2 (1.8)  
Ambulation status on admission: no. (%)     (0) (0)  
 Ambulate independently 16 (14.3) 4 (5.9) 0.107 6 (33.3) 20 (17.5) 0.016*
 Ambulate with assistance 14 (12.5) 4 (5.9)   0 (0) 23 (20.2)  
 Unable to ambulate 45 (40.2) 30 (44.1)   9 (50) 30 (26.3)  
 Not documented 37 (33) 30 (44.1)   3 (16.7) 41 (36)  
Ambulation status on discharge: no. (%)
 Ambulate independently 39 (34.8) 30 (44.1) 0.223 9 (50) 52 (45.6) 0.328
 Ambulate With assistance 29 (25.9) 17 (25)   3 (16.7) 39 (34.2)  
 Unable to ambulate 29 (25.9) 18 (26.5)   3 (16.7) 15 (13.2)  
 Not documented 15 (13.4) 3 (4.4)   3 (16.7) 8 (7)  
First care received: no. (%)
 Emergency department 100 (89.3) 59 (86.8) 0.609 12 (66.7) 26 (22.8) < 0.001*
 Direct admission 12 (10.7) 9 (13.2)   6 (33.3) 88 (77.2)  
Improved ambulation 63 (56.3) 46 (67.6) 0.129 14 (77.8) 75 (65.8) 0.313
  1. Continuous variables are represented as Mean ± S.D. and comparisons between groups are made with a Student’s T Test. Discrete variables are represented as Count (Percent Frequency) and comparisons between groups were made using Pearson’s Chi Squared
  2. *P < 0.05