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Table 1 General characteristics of study population by glucose tolerance

From: Differential role of insulin resistance and β-cell function in the development of prediabetes and diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population

Variables NGT
n = 263
Prediabetes
n = 161
T2DM
n = 85
P P trend
Age (years) 59.4 ± 6.6 60.4 ± 7.4 62.7 ± 6.1a, b 0.001 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.2 ± 2.8 23.4 ± 2.9a 23.7 ± 2.9a < 0.001 < 0.001
WHR 0.89 ± 0.06 0.92 ± 0.10a 0.93 ± 0.06a < 0.001 < 0.001
Female (n, %) 143 (54.4) 78 (48.4) 52 (61.2) 0.154 0.153
Education (n, %) 0.135 0.124
 Primary school and below 157 (59.7) 91 (56.5) 62 (71.9)   
 Middle school 76 (28.9) 53 (32.9) 17 (20.0)   
 High school and above 30 (11.4) 17 (10.6) 6 (7.1)   
Smoking status (n, %) 0.163 0.158
 Non-smoker 165 (62.7) 93 (57.8) 55 (64.7)   
 Ever-smoker 28 (10.7) 29 (18.0) 1 (16.5)   
 Current-smoker 70 (26.6) 39 (24.2) 16 (18.8)   
Drinking status (n, %) 0.029 0.026
 Non-drinker 118 (44.9) 66 (41.0) 49 (57.7)   
 Ever-drinker 17 (6.4) 4 (2.5) 4 (4.7)   
 Current-drinker 128 (48.7) 91 (56.5) 32 (37.6)   
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.50 ± 0.67 2.73 ± 0.72a 2.64 ± 0.76 0.003 0.015
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.32 1.31 ± 0.33 1.34 ± 0.38 0.740 0.785
TG (mmol/L) 1.42 ± 0.90 1.78 ± 1.14a 2.01 ± 1.50a < 0.001 < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.77 ± 0.85 5.14 ± 0.94a 5.20 ± 1.00a < 0.001 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.52 ± 0.34 5.65 ± 0.32 6.72 ± 0.71a, b < 0.001 < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.24 ± 0.37 5.55 ± 0.49 7.43 ± 0.57a, b < 0.001 < 0.001
2 h-PG (mmol/L) 6.26 ± 1.05 8.90 ± 1.20a 13.92 ± 1.38a, b < 0.001 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 120.6 ± 15.8 127.2 ± 13.2a 130.7 ± 16.2a < 0.001 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 71.1 ± 9.2 74.5 ± 7.9a 75.4 ± 8.4a < 0.001 < 0.001
Adipo-IR
 Q1 (≤ 1.52) 92 (35.0) 23 (14.3) 11 (12.9) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Q2 (1.53–2.37) 68 (25.9) 40 (24.8) 13 (15.3)   
 Q3 (2.38–3.70) 68 (25.9) 42 (26.1) 20 (23.5)   
 Q4 (≥ 3.71) 35 (13.3) 56 (34.8) 41 (48.2)   
HOMA-IR
 Q1 (≤ 0.87) 82 (31.2) 28 (17.4) 11 (12.9) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Q2 (0.88–1.29) 76 (28.9) 38 (23.6) 8 (9.4)   
 Q3 (1.30–1.91) 66 (25.1) 45 (28.0) 23 (27.1)   
 Q4 (≥ 1.92) 39 (14.8) 50 (31.0) 43 (50.6)   
HOMA-β
 Q1 (≤ 40.12) 59 (22.4) 36 (22.3) 43 (50.6) < 0.001 0.135
 Q2 (40.13–56.04) 76 (28.9) 33 (20.5) 17 (20.0)   
 Q3 (56.05–80.23) 69 (26.3) 45 (28.0) 10 (11.8)   
 Q4 (≥ 80.24) 59 (22.4) 47 (29.2) 15 (17.6)   
Fasting CPRI
 Q1 (≤ 1.16) 70 (26.6) 30 (18.6) 28 (32.9) 0.005 0.005
 Q2 (1.17–1.48) 77 (29.3) 32 (19.9) 25 (29.4)   
 Q3 (1.49–1.92) 62 (23.6) 48 (29.8) 14 (16.5)   
 Q4 (≥ 1.93) 54 (20.5) 51 (31.7) 18 (21.2)   
Postprandial CPRI
 Q1 (≤ 4.41) 54 (20.5) 31 (19.3) 36 (42.4) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Q2 (4.42–5.53) 62 (23.6) 48 (29.8) 10 (11.8)   
 Q3 (5.54–7.08) 69 (26.2) 44 (27.3) 7 (8.3)   
 Q4 (≥ 7.09) 78 (29.7) 38 (23.6) 3 (3.5)   
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD or number (percentage). P: from analysis of variance; Ptrend: from test for linearity. Differences among three glucose tolerance groups were analyzed by Bonferroni-Dunn post hoc test
  2. aStatistically significant vs. NGT
  3. bStatistically significant vs. prediabetes