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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at time of screening

From: People with type 2 diabetes and screen-detected cognitive impairment use acute health care services more often: observations from the COG-ID study

  Total study population (n = 154) Screen-detected cognitive impairment (n = 37) Screen negatives (n = 117)
Age (years) 76.7 ± 5.2 77.8 ± 5.6 76.4 ± 5.0
Female sex 58 (38%) 15 (41%) 43 (37%)
Living alone 57 (37%) 10 (27%) 47 (40%)
Educational levela 5 (4–6) 4 (2–5)* 5 (5–6)*
Low educational level (Verhage scale 1–4) 46 (30%) 22 (60%)* 24 (20%)*
Diabetes duration (years) 8.7 ± 8.2 10.6 ± 8.1 8.1 ± 8.1
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 52.2 ± 9.7 53.8 ± 9.8 51.7 ± 9.6
HbA1c (%) 6.9 ± 0.9 7.1 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 0.9
Use of Metformin, yes 104 (78%) 22 (76%) 82 (80%)
Use of insulin, yes 30 (20%) 9 (24%) 21 (18%)
Use of Sulfonylurea, yes 45 (29%) 9 (24%) 36 (31%)
Use of lipid lowering drugs, yes 122 (80%) 29 (78%) 93 (81%)
Diabetic neuropathy, yes 15 (10%) 5 (14%) 10 (9%)
Diabetic retinopathy, yes 11 (7%) 4 (11%) 7 (6%)
MDRD 67.9 ± 19.2 64.9 ± 20.7 71.9 ± 18.5
BMI (kg/m2) 28.6 ± 4.4 29.2 ± 4.8 28.4 ± 4.3
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 139.8 ± 17.4 140.4 ± 13.3 139.6 ± 18.6
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 75.4 ± 11.4 76.0 ± 12.1 75.3 ± 11.2
MMSE 28.4 ± 2.0 26.4 ± 3.0* 29.0 ± 1.1*
TYM score 42.4 ± 6.4 35.4 ± 8.8* 44.5 ± 2.6*
SAGE score 17.1 ± 4.1 11.5 ± 4.4* 18.6 ± 2.2*
Equation 5D mobility, any problems (%) 83 (55%) 24 (65%) 59 (51%)
Equation 5D self care, any problems (%) 17 (11%) 8 (22%)* 9 (8%)*
Equation 5D usual activities, any problems (%) 49 (32%) 22 (59%)* 27 (23%)*
CES-D ≥ 16 27 (18%) 13 (36%)* 14 (12%)*
  1. Data are presented as means (± standard deviation), median (interquartile range), or number and proportion in  %
  2. BMI body mass index, CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Equation 5D EuroQol Five-Dimension Scale, MDRD modification of diet in renal disease, MMSE Mini-Mental state examination, TYM Test Your Memory, SAGE Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination
  3. * p ≤ 0.05 for comparison between the groups (Chi square test/t-test)
  4. aEducational level is classified by the Dutch Verhage scale [24]; a seven point rating scale ranging from 1 (which equals a level of less than 6 years of elementary school) to 7 (equals a finished training at a university or technical college)