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Table 2 Diabetes classification

From: Stem cells as a potential therapy for diabetes mellitus: a call-to-action in Latin America

Diabetes type Description
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) β-Cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Varying degrees of insulin resistance and long-term insulin deficiency
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) Pregnant women who have never had diabetes mellitus but who experience high blood glucose levels during pregnancy
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) Rare form of diabetes that is distinct from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and strongly runs in families. It is caused by a mutation in a single gene. If a parent has this gene mutation, any child has a 50% chance of inheriting it
Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) Disorder in which, despite the presence of islet antibodies at diagnosis of diabetes, the progression of autoimmune β-cell failure is slow
Diseases of exocrine pancreas Includes pancreatitis, trauma, infection, neoplasia, cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, pancreatectomy, and others
Endocrinopathies Includes acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, glucagonoma, hyperthyroidism, somatostatinoma, and others
Drug- or chemical-induced diabetes Includes some immunotherapy, exogenous steroids, antipsychotics medication, statins, and others
Infections Congenital rubella and other viruses have been implicated
Uncommon forms of immune-mediated diabetes Rare cases of diabetes associated with new checkpoint inhibitor therapies
Stiff-man syndrome An autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, usually with high titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD] autoantibodies