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Table 1 Sociodemographic, health behavior, and clinical characteristics of eligible Sister Study participants (N = 38,007)

From: Multiple poor sleep characteristics and metabolic abnormalities consistent with metabolic syndrome among white, black, and Hispanic/Latina women: modification by menopausal status

  Total
N = 38,007
White
n = 32,925 (86.63%)
Black
n = 3243 (8.53%)
Hispanic/Latina
n = 1839 (4.84%)
All Menopausal status All Menopausal status All Menopausal status All Menopausal status
Pre-
n = 13,988
36.8%
Post-
n = 24,019
63.2%
Pre-
n = 11,757
35.7%
Post-
n = 21,168
64.3%
Pre-
n = 1417
43.4%
Post-
n = 1826
56.3%
Pre-
n = 814
44.3%
Post-
n = 1025
55.7%
Sociodemographic characteristics
Mean age ± SD (years) 55.0 ± 8.77 46.8 ± 5.12 59.8 ± 6.62 55.3 ± 8.79 46.8 ± 5.10 60.1 ± 6.61 53.1 ± 8.14 46.7 ± 5.16 58.1 ± 6.33 52.7 ± 8.88 45.6 ± 5.25 58.3 ± 6.89
Educational attainment
 ≤ High school 14.5 11.8 16.1 14.6 11.9 16.1 9.56 7.83 10.9 22.0 17.2 25.8
 Some college or technical degree 32.9 31.9 33.5 32.7 31.5 33.3 34.0 34.2 33.8 35.0 34.4 35.5
 ≥ College (bachelor’s or greater) 52.6 56.3 50.5 52.8 56.7 50.6 56.5 58.0 55.3 43.0 48.4 38.7
Currently employed (yes) 68.4 83.4 59.6 67.7 83.0 59.2 77.0 89.6 67.3 64.4 78.6 53.2
Annual household income
 Less than $20,000 3.77 2.48 4.51 2.86 1.60 3.57 4.93 4.38 5.37 17.8 11.9 22.5
 $20,000 to $49,999 19.8 14.2 23.1 18.8 12.4 22.4 24.1 21.7 25.9 30.2 27.3 32.6
 $50,000 to $99,999 41.5 41.9 41.3 41.8 42.4 41.5 44.3 42.7 45.5 31.4 34.2 29.3
 $100,000 or more 34.9 41.4 31.1 36.5 43.6 32.6 26.7 31.2 23.2 20.5 26.7 15.6
Household size, median (IQR) 2 (2–3) 3 (2–4) 2 (2–2) 2 (2–3) 3 (2–4) 2 (2–2) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4) 2 (1–2) 2 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 2 (2–3)
At least one child aged < 18 years in household (yes) 27.7 55.2 11.7 26.6 55.4 10.5 33.5 51.2 19.8 37.5 59.1 20.3
Marital status
 Married/living as married 75.5 79.6 73.1 78.1 82.6 75.6 53.6 57.1 51.0 68.2 76.2 61.9
 Divorced/separated/widowed 19.0 13.1 22.5 17.4 11.6 20.6 32.4 24.1 38.9 24.7 15.6 31.9
 Single/never married 5.47 7.31 4.40 4.55 5.86 3.82 14.0 18.8 10.2 7.12 8.23 6.24
Health behaviors
Smoking status
 Current 7.67 8.47 7.20 7.59 8.54 7.06 9.28 8.47 9.91 6.25 7.49 5.27
 Former 35.0 23.4 38.8 36.6 30.3 40.2 25.2 17.5 31.1 22.9 20.0 25.2
 Never 57.3 63.2 54.0 55.8 61.2 52.8 65.6 74.0 60.0 70.9 72.5 69.6
Alcohol consumption (past 12 months)
 Heavy (> 7 drinks/week) 11.3 11.2 11.5 12.3 12.3 12.4 4.69 4.73 4.65 5.22 6.02 4.59
 Light/moderate (≤ 7 drinks/week) 71.2 74.5 69.3 71.9 75.3 70.0 66.7 70.3 63.9 66.4 70.5 63.1
 Nondrinker (never/former) 17.5 14.3 19.3 15.8 12.4 17.6 28.7 25.0 31.5 28.4 23.5 32.3
METs-hours/week ± SD 50.9 ± 31.1 50.3 ± 31.1 51.3 ± 31.2 51.5 ± 31.2 51.0 ± 31.3 51.8 ± 31.2 45.4 ± 29.6 45.3 ± 29.7 45.4 ± 29.5 49.7 ± 30.8 48.2 ± 29.6 51.0 ± 31.8
Healthy Eating Index score ± SD 62.3 ± 12.2 61.3 ± 12.0 62.8 ± 12.2 62.8 ± 12.2 61.8 ± 12.1 63.3 ± 12.2 58.6 ± 11.3 58.2 ± 10.9 58.9 ± 11.5 60.1 ± 11.8 59.8 ± 11.4 60.3 ± 12.2
Daily glycemic load, glucose scale ± SD 85.0 ± 39.1 87.8 ± 40.7 83.3 ± 38.1 83.8 ± 36.8 86.4 ± 38.5 82.4 ± 35.7 93.3 ± 52.8 96.9 ± 52.6 90.5 ± 52.8 91.0 ± 47.8 92.1 ± 45.4 90.1 ± 49.7
Habitual sleep duration categoryA
 Short sleep duration (< 7 h) 28.3 27.5 28.7 25.3 24.1 26.0 53.1 52.7 53.3 37.4 33.3 40.6
 Recommended sleep duration (7–9 h) 71.7 72.5 71.3 74.7 75.9 74.0 46.9 47.3 46.7 62.6 66.8 59.4
Inconsistent weekly sleep patterns (yes) 14.2 11.6 15.8 13.2 10.4 14.8 21.1 18.6 23.1 20.0 16.4 22.8
Sleep debt (yes) 25.1 28.5 23.2 23.8 27.0 22.0 34.1 37.2 31.7 33.2 34.9 31.7
Napping ≥ 3 times/week (yes) 9.58 7.22 11.0 9.04 6.64 10.4 13.3 10.7 15.3 12.7 9.71 15.1
Insomnia symptoms (yes) 26.0 21.8 28.4 24.7 20.3 27.2 33.3 30.3 35.6 35.4 29.8 39.8
 Difficulty falling asleep (yes) 17.1 14.6 18.5 15.4 12.8 16.9 27.4 25.1 29.3 28.4 23.1 32.5
 Difficulty staying asleep (yes) 13.1 10.3 14.8 13.2 10.3 14.8 11.5 9.33 13.1 14.5 12.0 16.6
Short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms (yes) 11.4 9.78 12.3 9.98 8.15 11.0 21.9 20.5 23.0 18.0 14.7 20.6
Mean cumulative sleep score ± SD 1.03 ± 1.15 0.966 ± 1.12 1.07 ± 1.17 0.958 ± 1.12 0.883 ± 1.07 1.00 ± 1.14 1.54 ± 1.27 1.49 ± 1.25 1.59 ± 1.28 1.38 ± 1.23 1.24 ± 1.20 1.50 ± 1.25
Sleep medication use (yes) 23.7 19.9 25.9 24.5 20.4 26.7 16.3 15.2 17.2 22.1 20.0 23.8
Clinical characteristics
Mean BMI ± SD (kg/m2) 27.6 ± 6.12 27.3 ± 6.30 27.8 ± 6.00 27.2 ± 5.94 26.8 ± 6.00 27.5 ± 5.88 31.2 ± 6.93 31.1 ± 7.46 31.2 ± 6.50 28.2 ± 5.73 27.9 ± 5.92 28.4 ± 5.57
 Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 1.12 1.19 1.09 1.22 1.31 1.18 0.37 0.49 0.27 0.65 0.61 0.68
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 38.3 42.7 35.7 40.8 45.9 38.0 17.0 19.8 14.7 31.4 36.5 27.3
 Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 31.6 29.0 33.1 31.2 28.4 32.8 31.8 30.8 32.6 37.4 33.3 31.4
 Obese (≥ 30.0 kg/m2) 29.0 27.1 30.1 26.8 24.3 28.1 50.9 48.8 52.4 30.6 29.6 31.4
Physician-diagnosed clinical depression or bipolar disorder (yes) 19.9 18.9 20.5 20.2 19.5 20.6 15.3 13.5 16.7 22.5 18.9 25.3
Hormone replacement therapy use (yes) 10.3 11.7 14.4 10.9 3.44 15.0 6.85 2.33 10.4 6.09 2.33 9.07
Postmenopausal (yes) 63.2 100 64.3 0 100 56.3 0 100 55.7 0 100
 Natural menopause (yes) 63.9 63.9 65.2 65.2 50.3 50.3 61.2 61.2
Use of lipid control medications (yes) 18.4 7.45 24.8 18.5 7.23 24.7 17.9 8.54 25.2 18.5 8.72 26.2
Metabolic Abnormalities, median (IQR) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–1) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–1) 1 (0–2) 2 (1–2) 1 (0–2) 2 (1–3) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–1) 1 (1–2)
Hypertension as defined by original definition (yes)B 30.3 18.5 37.2 28.5 16.0 35.4 49.5 39.2 57.5 29.6 18.7 38.3
Hypertension as defined by new guidelines (yes)B 38.4 27.0 45.1 36.6 24.4 43.3 57.8 48.4 65.0 37.8 26.9 46.4
Abdominal obesity (yes) 39.4 35.0 42.0 37.2 32.4 39.9 59.1 54.3 62.9 43.8 38.9 47.6
Dyslipidemia (yes) 32.8 19.3 40.7 32.4 18.4 40.1 33.8 22.9 42.2 38.7 24.7 59.9
Prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (yes) 6.99 4.28 8.56 6.00 3.47 7.40 14.3 8.82 18.5 12.0 8.11 15.0
Metabolic Abnormalities consistent with MetS (yes)C 11.9 5.63 15.5 10.8 4.60 14.2 21.3 12.4 28.2 15.4 8.72 20.8
Metabolic Abnormalities consistent with MetS (yes)D 13.3 6.68 17.1 12.1 35.7 64.3 22.6 13.3 29.9 17.0 9.58 22.9
  1. Data presented as %, median and IQR, or mean ± SD. Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding
  2. Proportion employed is calculated as: number employed/(number employed + unemployed + homemaker + student + retired). Healthy Eating Index scores range from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating a healthier diet [38]. Proportion of natural menopause is calculated as: number reporting natural menopause/all women reporting menopause
  3. Inconsistent weekly sleep patterns indicated whether participants reported consistent (could vary day-by-day but were stable from week-to-week) or inconsistent wake-up times and bedtimes during the prior 6 weeks. Sleep debt was defined as ≥ 2-h difference between average longest and shortest sleep duration. Insomnia symptoms included difficulty falling asleep, defined as taking > 30 min vs. ≤ 30 min to fall asleep on average, or difficulty staying asleep, defined as waking up ≥ 3 times per night ≥ 3 nights/week vs. < 3 times per night < 3 nights/week vs. neither. Cumulative sleep score was the sum of yes responses to the main sleep characteristics (short sleep duration, inconsistent weekly sleep patterns, sleep debt, frequent napping, and insomnia symptoms [range: 0–5])
  4. Missingness: < 0.2% for household size, number of children in household, marital status, BMI/BMI category, glycemic load, sleep medication use, habitual sleep duration category, consistent sleep pattern, sleep debt, napping, insomnia symptoms, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, cumulative sleep score; 0% for age, educational attainment, current employment, annual household income, smoking status, alcohol consumption, METs-hours/week, Healthy Eating Index Score, clinical depression/bipolar disorder, hormone replacement therapy use, menopausal status, number of baseline metabolic abnormalities/MetS, hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, borderline/type 2 diabetes mellitus
  5. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, METs metabolic equivalent, MetS metabolic syndrome
  6. AParticipants who reported long sleep duration (> 9 h) were excluded due to small sample size (n = 349)
  7. BOriginal definition (systolic blood pressure (blood pressure) > 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > 85 mmHg) as defined by Alberti et al. [35] and new guidelines refer to the statement of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force (2017) (systolic BP > 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > 80 mmHg)
  8. CMetabolic abnormalities consistent with MetS were based on an adapted version of the harmonized definition for MetS [35]: the presence of three or more individual metabolic abnormalities (i.e., hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia)
  9. DAdapted harmonized definition of MetS applying the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force (2017) guidelines for hypertension [45]