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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients with or without hypoglycemia

From: Hypoglycemia in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic Japanese patients by continuous glucose monitoring

  Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
No hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia P value* No hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia P value* No hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia P value*
N 49 4   60 4   66 7  
Age (years) 65.1 ± 1.8 69.5 ± 6.2 0.428 66.6 ± 1.6 54.5 ± 6.3 0.331 61.3 ± 1.7 60.1 ± 5.2 0.793
Duration of diabetes (years) 11.2 ± 1.9 22.3 ± 6.6 0.194 11.5 ± 1.5 14.8 ± 5.6 0.472 10.1 ± 1,1 13.4 ± 3.3 0.346
BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 0.7 22.7 ± 2.4 0.239 25.6 ± 0.6 25.8 ± 2.5 0.824 26.5 ± 0.6 25.8 ± 1.8 0.415
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 62.9 ± 3.8 57.8 ± 13.2 0.711 66.5 ± 2.9 58.3 ± 12.8 0.571 79.5 ± 3.1 68.1 ± 9.5 0.382
HbA1c (%) 6.6 ± 0.0 6.6 ± 0.1 0.918 7.4 ± 0.1 7.5 ± 0.2 0.802 8.5 ± 0.0 8.4 ± 0.1 0.520
FPG (mg/dL) 120.2 ± 3.1 125.5 ± 10.7 0.410 135.3 ± 4.5 120.5 ± 17.4 0.533 152.8 ± 4.8 132.3 ± 14.7 0.166
HOMA-IR 2.4 ± 2.8 (n = 28) 0.7 ± 2.8 (n = 1) 0.555 2.7 ± 0.3 (n = 43) 0.8 ± 1.0 (n = 3) 0.020 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 38) 4.7 ± 0.8 (n = 6) 0.505
Urinary CPR (μg/day) 68.8 ± 8.5 12.0 ± 37.6 0.037 70.6 ± 6.3 31.4 ± 22.5 0.080 84.1 ± 7.4 58.8 ± 21.8 0.115
Treatment of diabetes
 Without glucose-lowering agents, n (%) 26 (53) 0 (0) 0.041 18 (30) 0 (0) 0.196 14 (21) 0 (0) 0.076
 Number of oral hypoglycemic agent, n 0.6 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.4 0.907 1.2 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.6 0.784 1.2 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.4 0.162
 Sulfonylureas, n (%) 5 (10) 0 (0) 0.502 21 (35) 1 (25) 0.684 21 (32) 2 (29) 0.860
 DPP4i, n (%) 11 (22) 2 (50) 0.218 25 (42) 2 (50) 0.744 32 (48) 6 (85) 0.060
 Biguanides, n (%) 6 (12) 0 (0) 0.552 14 (23) 2 (50) 0.233 15 (23) 1 (14) 0.608
 Thiazolidinedione, n (%) 6 (12) 0 (0) 0.457 7 (12) 1 (25) 0.435 6 (9) 1 (14) 0.657
 Glinide, n (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0.758 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 αGI, n (%) 4 (8) 0 (0) 0.552 5 (8) 0 (0) 0.548 8 (12) 2 (29) 0.229
 Insulin, n (%) 10 (20) 3 (75) 0.015 10 (17) 1 (25) 0.669 13 (20) 1 (14) 0.730
 GLP-1, n (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0.766 1 (2) 0 (0) 0.819 2 (3) 0 (0) 0.632
Combination therapy
 Insulin only, n (%) 5 (10) 2 (50) 0.024 4 (7) 1 (25) 0.186 8 (12) 0 (0) 0.329
Without insulin
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs only 1, n (%) 6 (12) 2 (50) 0.042 13 (22) 2 (50) 0.213 15 (23) 3 (43) 0.251
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs ≥ 2, n (%) 10 (20) 0 (0) 0.316 21 (36) 1 (25) 0.651 26 (40) 3 (43) 0.884
With insulin
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs only 1, n (%) 3 (6) 1 (25) 0.169 5 (8) 0 (0) 0.268 2 (3) 1 (14) 0.154
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs ≥ 2, n (%) 2 (4) 0 (0) 0.680 2 (3) 0 (0) 0.711 3 (5) 0 (0) 0.565
Glycemic variations
 Average glucose level 0–24 h (mg/dL) 146.0 ± 4.6 127.2 ± 16.0 0.232 158.8 ± 3.3 125.7 ± 12.6 0.023 169.0 ± 3.7 120.1 ± 11.2 < 0.001
 SD 0–24 h (mg/dL) 30.9 ± 7.0 30.9 ± 2.0 0.225 33.7 ± 1.9 34.5 ± 7.2 0.598 36.6 ± 1.5 35.3 ± 4.6 0.844
 MAGE 0–24 h (mg/dL) 88.2 ± 3.5 110.5 ± 12.3 0.381 96.5 ± 4.2 109.3 ± 16.2 0.305 98.5 ± 3.1 94.8 ± 9.5 0.555
 Maximum glucose level 0–24 h (mg/dL) 223.3 ± 8.0 223.3 ± 8.0 0.893 237.6 ± 6.9 213.5 ± 26.8 0.332 256.3 ± 5.6 194.7 ± 17.1 < 0.001
 Minimum glucose level 0–24 h (mg/dL) 98.6 ± 2.8 56.3 ± 10.0 < 0.001 105.1 ± 2.8 62.0 ± 10.8 < 0.001 108.1 ± 3.2 60.0 ± 9.9 < 0.001
 CV (%) 0.21 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.03 0.031 0.21 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.04 0.133 0.22 ± 0.01 0.29 ± 0.02 < 0.001
 Average glucose level′ 0–24 h (mg/dL) 2.23 ± 0.01 2.18 ± 0.03 0.114 2.26 ± 0.01 2.22 ± 0.03 0.148 2.28 ± 0.01 2.16 ± 0.03 < 0.001
 SD′ 0–24 h (mg/dL) 0.07 ± 0.00 0.11 ± 0.01 0.020 0.08 ± 0.00 0.10 ± 0.01 0.010 0.08 ± 0.00 0.10 ± 0.01 0.071
 CV′ (%) 3.18 ± 0.13 4.81 ± 0.44 0.011 3.35 ± 0.16 4.60 ± 0.65 0.068 3.52 ± 0.15 4.59 ± 0.45 0.027
 Percentage of AUC > 180 0–24 h (%) 17.6 ± 10.1 12.6 ± 10.1 0.735 26.7 ± 2.7 8.8 ± 10.4 0.076 34.5 ± 2.9 7.3 ± 8.9 < 0.001
 Percentage of AOC < 70 0–24 h (%) 0 4.5 ± 0.4 < 0.001 0 4.2 ± 0.3 < 0.001 0 8.1 ± 1.3 < 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated
  2. SD standard deviation, MAGE mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, CV coefficient of variation, Average glucose level′= log10 (Average glucose level +30); SD′ = log10 (SD + 30); CV′ = log10 (CV + 30); AUC area under the blood concentration–time curve, AOC area over the blood concentration–time curve. See Table 1 for abbreviations
  3. * Wilcoxon for comparisons between the no hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia groups, Chi square test for sex differences