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Table 1 Clinical characteristics according to HbA1c level

From: Hypoglycemia in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic Japanese patients by continuous glucose monitoring

  Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 P value*
n 53 64 73 49 54  
Age (years) 65.4 ± 1.7 65.9 ± 1.6 61.2 ± 1.5 63.3 ± 1.8 55.0 ± 1.8 < 0.001
Duration of diabetes (years) 12.1 ± 1.4 11.7 ± 1.3 10.4 ± 1.2 12.7 ± 1.5 6.2 ± 1.4 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.2 ± 0.6 25.6 ± 0.6 26.5 ± 0.5 24.7 ± 0.6 26.9 ± 0.6 0.087
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 62.6 ± 3.6 66.1 ± 3.3 78.4 ± 3.0 74.7 ± 3.7 90.9 ± 3.5 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 6.6 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.1 8.5 ± 0.1 9.5 ± 0.1 11.3 ± 0.1 < 0.001
FPG (mg/dL) 120.8 ± 5.0 134.4 ± 4.5 150.8 ± 4.2 164.2 ± 5.1 188.6 ± 4.9 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 2.4 ± 0.4 (n = 29) 2.5 ± 0.3 (n = 46) 2.9 ± 0.3 (n = 44) 2.2 ± 0.4 (n = 23) 2.5 ± 0.4 (n = 23) 0.628
Urinary CPR (μg/day) 66.0 ± 8.6 67.8 ± 7.4 81.5 ± 6.6 61.5 ± 8.2 107.0 ± 7.7 < 0.001
Treatment of diabetes
 Without glucose-lowering agents, n (%) 27 (51) 18 (28) 14 (19) 8 (16) 18 (33) < 0.001
 Sulfonylureas, n (%) 5 (9) 22 (34) 23 (32) 18 (37) 21 (39) 0.006
 Biguanides, n (%) 4 (8) 16 (25) 16 (22) 15 (31) 11 (20) 0.058
 DPP4i, n (%) 13 (25) 27 (42) 38 (52) 27 (55) 17 (31) 0.004
 Thiazolidinedione, n (%) 6 (11) 8 (13) 7 (10) 6 (12) 7 (13) 0.978
 Glinide, n (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0.154
 αGI, n (%) 4 (8) 5 (8) 10 (14) 3 (6) 3 (6) 0.465
 Insulin, n (%) 13 (25) 13 (20) 14 (19) 9 (18) 1 (2) 0.022
 GLP-1, n (%) 1 (2) 1 (2) 2 (3) 1 (2) 3 (6) 0.699
Combination therapy
 Insulin only, n (%) 7 (13) 5 (8) 8 (11) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.011
Without insulin
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs only 1, n (%) 8 (15) 15 (24) 18 (25) 14 (29) 17 (32) 0.336
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs ≥ 2, n (%) 10 (19) 22 (35) 29 (40) 21 (43) 18 (34) 0.080
With insulin
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs only 1, n (%) 4 (8) 6 (9) 3 (4) 8 (16) 0 (0) 0.019
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs ≥ 2, n (%) 2 (4) 2 (3) 3 (4) 1 (2) 1 (2) 0.939
All (n = 294)
 Hypoglycemia, n (%) 4 (8) 4 (6) 7 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.052
 Severe hypoglycemia, n (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.594
With glucose-lowering agents (n = 209) n 27 46 59 41 36  
 Hypoglycemia, n (%) 4 (15) 4 (9) 7 (49) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.044
 Severe hypoglycemia, n (%) 1 (4) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.451
  1. Data are mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated
  2. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, CPR C peptide immunoreactivity, DPP4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, αGI α-glucosidase inhibitor, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1
  3. * ANOVA for comparisons between each group, Chi square test for sex differences, treatment, hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia