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Table 2 Nutrients and food group intake of the study population across quartile of EDIP score

From: Empirical dietary inflammatory pattern and risk of metabolic syndrome and its components: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Nutrients and food groups EDIP score
Q1 (n = 554) (< 0.36) Q2 (n = 565) (0.36–0.55) Q3 (n = 549) (0.55–81) Q4 (n = 548) (0.81–6.9) P
Total energy (kcal/day) 1978 ± 647 2196 ± 585 2479 ± 638 2847 ± 643 0.001
Carbohydrate (% of energy) 58.1 ± 7.1 58.6 ± 6.7 58.7 ± 6.1 60.0 ± 5.9 0.001
Protein (% of energy) 14.7 ± 3.1 14.9 ± 4.1 15.2 ± 3.2 14.7 ± 2.4 0.071
Total fat (% of energy) 30.8 ± 6.7 30.3 ± 6.4 29.7 ± 5.5 28.4 ± 5.6 0.001
Saturated fat (% of energy) 10.4 ± 2.9 10.1 ± 2.8 9.8 ± 2.4 9.2 ± 2.4 0.001
Monounsaturated fat (% of energy) 10.3 ± 3.3 10.1 ± 2.6 9.9 ± 2.5 9.4 ± 2.5 0.001
Polyunsaturated fat (% of energy) 6.0 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 1.7 5.8 ± 1.8 0.412
Fiber (g/1000 kcal) 16.9 ± 7.6 18.3 ± 5.3 20.2 ± 6.2 22.5 ± 7.9 0.001
Food groups (servings/day)
 Tea 2.9 ± 2.3 2.3 ± 2.4 2.3 ± 1.8 2.1 ± 1.6 0.001
 Coffee 0.06 ± 0.3 0.05 ± 0.1 0.04 ± 0.1 0.04 ± 0.1 0.297
 Dark yellow vegetables 0.12 ± 0.2 0.13 ± 0.2 0.14 ± 0.2 0.14 ± 0.2 0.186
 Leafy green vegetables 0.19 ± 0.62 0.18 ± 0.17 0.19 ± 0.18 0.19 ± 0.18 0.895
 Snacks 0.29 ± 0.60 0.23 ± 0.40 0.25 ± 0.39 0.25 ± 0.40 0.158
 Fruit juice 0.12 ± 0.25 0.11 ± 0.16 0.11 ± 0.24 0.11 ± 0.25 0.587
 Pizza 0.06 ± 0.09 0.04 ± 0.05 0.04 ± 0.04 0.04 ± 0.05 0.001
 Processed meat 0.15 ± 0.21 0.17 ± 0.20 0.22 ± 0.34 0.23 ± 033 0.001
 Red meat 0.39 ± 0.32 0.50 ± 0.41 0.61 ± 0.52 0.77 ± 0.88 0.001
 Organ meat 0.02 ± 0.03 0.02 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.05 0.04 ± 0.08 0.001
 Other fish 0.17 ± 0.16 0.23 ± 0.20 0.28 ± 0.25 0.40 ± 0.68 0.001
 Other vegetables 0.54 ± 0.35 0.70 ± 0.45 0.86 ± 0.65 1.08 ± 2.2 0.001
 Refined grains 2.5 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 2.1 9.6 ± 4.1 0.001
 Tomatoes 0.47 ± 0.36 0.68 ± 0.47 0.80 ± 0.56 0.95 ± 0.92 0.001
 Beverages 0.13 ± 0.19 0.17 ± 0.26 0.20 ± 0.28 0.28 ± 0.44 0.001
  1. EDIP scores were recorded as pro-inflammatory diets with more positive scores and anti-inflammatory diets with more negative scores
  2. EDIP empirical dietary inflammatory pattern. Data are mean ± SD using Analysis of variance