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Table 1 Summary of studies assessing GDM prevalence

From: The impact of diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes on its prevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Country Type of GDM screening test GDM criteria Year of sampling Sample size Prevalence of GDM Quality scaling
Aljohani et al. 2008a Canada GCT with 50 g 1-h GCT, threshold: values above 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 100 g 3-h. Threshold: two value above 5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h National criteria 1985–2004 324,605 2.9 Moderate
Al Mahroos et al. 2005a Bahrain GCT with 50 g 1-h GCT, threshold: values above 140 mg/dL following OGTT with 75 g 3-h. Threshold: two value above 95, 180, 155 and 140 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h Fourth international conference on GDM 2001–2002 10,495 13.3 High
Anna et al. 2008b Australia GCT with 50 g 1-h GCT, threshold: values above 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: value above 5.5, 8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h National criteria 1995–2005 950,737 3.7 High
Arora et al. 2015b India 1. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: value above 5.1 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: value above 7 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
1. WHO 2013
2. WHO 1999
2009–2012 1. 5100
2. 5100
1. 34.9
2. 9
Moderate
Baptiste-Roberts et al. 2012a USA OGTT with 100 g 3-h. Threshold: value above 120 or 175, 155 and 140 mg/dL for fasting and 1 h, and did not return to normal in the 2- and 3-h National criteria 1959–1966 28,358 1.7 High
Leng et al. 2015a China 1. GCT with 50 g 1-h GCT, Threshold: values above 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h. Threshold: one value above 5.1, 10.0 and 8.5 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h
2. GCT with 50 g 1-h GCT, Threshold: values above 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h. Threshold: Fasting < 7.0 mmol/L and 2-h > 7.8 but < 11.1 mmol/L OR fasting > 6.1 but < 7.0 mmol/L and 2-h PG < 7.8 mmol/L
1. IADPSG
2. WHO1999
2010–2012 1. 17,808
2. 17,808
1. 7.7
2. 6.8
High
Chodick et al. 2010a Israel GCT with 50 g 1-h GCT, threshold: not mentioned, following OGTT with 100 g 3-h. Threshold: two value above 95, 180, 155 and 140 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h Carpenter and Coustan 1995–1999 185,416 6.07 High
Moses et al. 2011a Australia 1. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 5.5 and 8.0 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
2. OGTT with (not mentioned) g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 5.1, 10.0 and 8.2 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h
1. ADIPS
2. IADPSG
NM* 1. 1275
2. 1275
1. 9.6
2. 13
Moderate
Erjavec et al. 2016b Croatia 1. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 6.1 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 5.1, 10.0 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h
1. WHO 1999
2. National criteria
1. 2010
2. 2014
1. 42,656
2. 39,092
1. 2.2
2. 4.7
High
Ferrara et al. 2004a USA 1. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: not mentioned, following OGTT with 100 g 3-h. Threshold: Two value above 95 or 180, 155 and 140 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h
2. 2 hpp > 200 mg/dL, 3. FBS > 126 mg/dL, 4. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 140 mg/dL for 2 h, 5. GDM histort at time of hospital discharge
ADA, ACOG and WHO 1999–2000 267,051 6.33 Moderate
Ferrara et al. 2002b USA 1. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: 140 mg/dL following OGTT with 100 g 3-h. Threshold: two value above 105 or 190, 155, 165 and 145 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h
2. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: 140 mg/dL following OGTT with 100 g 3-h. Threshold: Two value above 95 or 180, 155, 140 and 145 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h
1. NDDG
2. Carpenter and Coustan
1996 1. 26,481
2. 26,481
1. 3.2
2. 4.8
High
Gao et al. 2010b China (1) GCT with 50 g 1-h, Threshold: ≥ 7.8 mmol/L but < 11.1 mmol/L, (2) FPG ≥ 5.8 mmol/L, (3) Random FPG ≥ 5.8 mmol/L twice, following OGTT with 75 g 3-h. Threshold: two value above 5.3, 10.0, 8.6 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h ADA 2006 4179 17.9 Moderate
Hedderson et al. 2010a USA GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: not mentioned following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 95 or 180, 155, 140 and 145 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h ADA 1995–2004 216,089 5.8 High
Ignell et al. 2014b Sweden OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: value above or equal 10.0 mmol/L for 2 h European Association of the Study of Diabetes 2003–2012 156,144 2.2 Moderate
Jenum et al. 2012a Norway 1. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 7 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 5.1 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
1. WHO
2. IADPSG
2008–2010 1. 759
2. 759
1. 13
2. 31.5
High
Ishak et al. 2003a Australia OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 5.5 and 8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h OR OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 7.8 and 11 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h National criteria 1988–1999 230,011 2.46 Moderate
Janghorbani et al. 2006a UK Random plasma glucose, threshold: 6.5 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: one value above or equal to 6 and 7.5 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h WHO 1996–1997 4942 1.8 Moderate
Jesmin et al. 2014b Bangladesh 1. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: ne value above or equal to 7 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
2. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: ne value above or equal to 5.3 and 8.6 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
1. WHO
2. ADA
2012–2013 1. 3447
2. 3447
1. 9.7
2. 12.9
Moderate
Kalamegham et al. 2010a USA GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: 130 mg/dL following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: ne value above or equal to 7 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h ADA 2000–2007 18,307 8.6 Moderate
Lawrence et al. 2008a USA GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: not mentioned following (1) OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above or equal to 5.3, 10, 8.6 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h OR (2) OGTT with 75 g glucose, threshold: two value above or equal to 5.3, 10 and 8.6 for fasting, 1 and 2 h OR (3) FBS ≥ 7 mmol/L OR (4) random plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L ADA 1999–2005 199,298 7.6 High
Leng et al. 2016a China GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: ≥ 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 5.1, 10.0 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h IADPSG 2010–2012 11,450 7.3 High
Magee et al. 1993a USA 1. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: ≥ 7.7 mmol/L following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 5.9, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h
2. GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: ≥ 7.7 mmol/L following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 5.3, 10.1, 8.7 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h
1. NDDG
2. Modified NDDG
1985–1986 1. 2019
2. 2019
1. 1.6
2. 5.8
High
McCarth et al. 2010a Argentina OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: value above or equal to 7.8 mmol/L for 2 h National criteria NM* 1702 5.8 Moderate
Melchior et al. 2017b Germany GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: ≥ 135 and ≤ 200 mg/dL following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 92, 180 and 153 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h ICD-10 2014–2015 458,291 13.2 Moderate
Mizuno et al. 2016b Japan Random blood glucose, threshold: > 100 mg/dL following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 92, 180 and 153 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h National criteria 2011 8874 2.3 High
Murphy et al. 1993a USA GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: ≥ 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 92, 180 and 153 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h O’Sullivan criteria 1987–1988 605 5.8 Moderate
Lindqvist et al. 2014b Sweden OGTT with 75 g glucose. Threshold: value above or equal to 10 mmol/L for 2 h European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2011–2012 20,822 2.2 High
Ostlund et al. 2003a Sweden OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 6.7 and 9 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h WHO 1994–1996 4918 1.7 Moderate
O’Sullivan et al. 2011a Ireland 1. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 5.1, 10 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7 and 11 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
1. IADPSG
2. WHO
2006–2009 1. 5500
2. 5500
1. 12.4
2. 9.4
Moderate
Bhavadharini et al. 2016b India 1. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 5.1, 10 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.7 mmol/L for 2 h
1. IADPSG
2. WHO
2013–2014 1. 1774
2. 1774
1. 15.7
2. 10.5
High
Pu et al. 2015a USA OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: Two value above 95, 180, 155 and 140 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h ICD-9 2007–2012 24,195 10.4 High
Sacks et al. 2012a HAPO study OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 5.1, 10.0 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h IADPSG 2000–2006 23,957 17.8 High
Schmidt et al. 2001a Brazil 1. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 5.3, 10.0 and 8.6 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.0 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
1. ADA
2. WHO
1991–1995 4977 1. 2.4
2. 7.2
High
Schmidt et al. 2000a Brazil OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.0 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h WHO 1991–1995 5004 7.6 Moderate
Sella et al. 2013a Israel GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: not mentioned following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 5.3, 10.0, 8.6 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h Carpenter and Coustan criteria 2000–2010 367,247 3.6 High
Seshiah et al. 2007a India OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 140 mg/dL for 2 h WHO 2007 4151 3.9 Moderate
Seshiah et al. 2008a India OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 140 mg/dL for 2 h WHO 2005–2007 12,056 13.9 Moderate
Seyoum et al. 1999a Ethiopia OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 140 mg/dL for 2 h WHO 1999 890 3.7 Moderate
Shand et al. 2008b Australia GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 5.5 and 8.0 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h ADIPS 1998–2002 370,703 4.5 High
Sommer et al. 2014a Norway OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 5.1 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h IADPSG 2008–2010 728 31.5 High
Sudasingh et al. 2016b Sri Lanka OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 126 and 140 mg/dL for fasting and 2 h WHO 2014–2015 1600 12.1 Moderate
Tamayo et al. 2016b Germany GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: ≥ 135 mg/dL following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above 92, 180 and 153 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h ICD-10 2013–2014 158,839 6.81 Moderate
Tan et al. 2017a Australia 1. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 5.5 and 8.0 mmol/L for fasting and 2 h
2. OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 5.1, 10 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h
IADPSG 2014–2015 2895 9 High
Trujillo et al. 2015a Brazil OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 92, 180 and 153 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h IADPSG 1991–1995 4926 18 Moderate
Wahabi et al. 20172 Saudi Arabia OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: value above or equal to 92–125, 180 and 153–199 mg/dL for fasting, 1 and 2 h WHO 2013–2015 9723 24.2 Moderate
Wang et al. 2012b USA GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: value above or equal to 140 mg/dL following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 95, 180, 155 and 140 mg/dL for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h ADA 1997–2009 62,685 4.3 High
Xiong et al. 2001a Canada GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 5.8, 10.5, 9.2 and 8 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h National criteria 1991–1997 111,563 2.5 Moderate
Yang et al. 2009a China GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.9–11.0 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: two value above 5.3, 10.0 and 8.6 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h ADA 2006 16,286 4.3 High
Yeung et al. 2017a Canada GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: two value above 5.3, 10.6 and 8.9 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h OR following OGTT with 100 g 3-h, threshold: two value above 5.3, 10.0 8.6 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting, 1, 2 and 3 h ICD-10 2004–2010 498,013 6 High
Zhang et al. 2011b China GCT with 50 g 1-h, threshold: value above or equal to 7.8 mmol/L following OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: two value above 6.1-7 and 7.8 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h WHO 1999–2008 105,473 4.5 High
Zhu et al. 2017a China OGTT with 75 g 2-h, threshold: one value above 5.1, 10.6 and 8.5 mmol/L for fasting, 1 and 2 h National criteria 2013 15,194 19.7 Moderate
  1. * NM not mentioned
  2. aCohort study
  3. bCross sectional study