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Table 4 Factors associated to HbA1c

From: Low empowerment and diabetes regimen distress are related to HbA1c in low income type 1 diabetes patients in a Brazilian tertiary public hospital

Variable (N = 63) Beta (parameter estimate) CI (95%) p-value
Female gender − 2.43 − 12.80; 7.22 0.61
Education (years) − 0.23 − 1.53; 1.06 0.71
Years of DM1 − 0.43 − 0.97; 0.10 0.11
MDD − 1.75 − 11.50; 8.01 0.72
HADD 0.14 − 9.62; 9.90 0.97
DES-SF − 1.11 − 1.96; − 0.25 0.01*
DDS-total scorea 4.40 − 6.59; 15.38 0.42
DDS-total scoreb 7.58 − 3.78; 18.94 0.18
DDS-subscale 1a 1.18 − 9.36; 11.72 0.82
DDS-subscale 1b − 6.01 − 18.22; 6.20 0.32
DDS-subscale 2a − 2.43 − 17.44; 12.58 0.74
DDS-subscale 2b − 4.00 − 19.01; 11.01 0.59
DDS-subscale 3 a 11.14 0.95; 21.33 0.003*
DDS-subscale 3b 9.02 − 3.93; 21.98 0.16
DDS-subscale 4a 2.78 − 9.05; 14.60 0.64
DDS-subscale 4b 9.41 − 1.82; 20.65 0.09
  1. Univariate linear regression
  2. MDD major depression disorder, according DSM-5 criteria, HADD depression subscale of Hospital anxiety and depression scale, DES-SF Diabetes Empowerment Scale-short form, DDS Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS-subscale 1 emotional burden, DDS-subscale 2 physician distress, DDS-subscale 3 regimen distress, DDS-subscale 4 interpersonal distress
  3. aDD > 2: distress clinically relevant (values between 2.0 and 2.9 = moderate DD; values > 3 = high DD)
  4. bDD < 2 (low DD)
  5. *p < 0.05