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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of cancer mortality with metabolic syndrome according to each metabolic risk factor by sex

From: Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cancer mortality in the general Japanese population: the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study

  Presence Participants Cancer deaths Parson-years Crude mortality (/1000 person-years) HR-agea (95% CI) HR-allb (95% CI)
Men
 Obesity No 3484 378 62,224 6.1 1.00 1.00
Yes 1011 95 18,602 5.1 0.97 (0.77–1.21) 0.99 (0.78–1.26)
 Elevated blood pressure No 2053 191 37,693 5.1 1.00 1.00
Yes 2442 282 43,150 6.5 0.96 (0.80–1.16) 0.99 (0.82–1.21)
 Elevated plasma glucose No 3833 378 69,607 5.4 1.00 1.00
Yes 662 95 11,247 8.4 1.46 (1.17–1.83) 1.49 (1.18–1.88)
 Dyslipidemia No 2676 280 48,221 5.8 1.00 1.00
Yes 1819 193 32,633 5.9 1.15 (0.96–1.38) 1.10 (0.91–1.34)
Women
 Obesity No 5245 195 98,606 2.0 1.00 1.00
Yes 1783 102 33,717 3.0 1.44 (1.14–1.83) 1.48 (1.15–1.91)
 Elevated blood pressure No 3657 127 69,337 1.8 1.00 1.00
Yes 3371 170 63,004 2.7 1.04 (0.82–1.31) 1.02 (0.80–1.31)
 Elevated plasma glucose No 6403 256 120,761 2.1 1.00 1.00
Yes 625 41 11,556 3.5 1.37 (0.98–1.91) 1.44 (1.03–2.03)
 Dyslipidemia No 5143 208 96,688 2.2 1.00 1.00
Yes 1885 89 35,664 2.5 1.03 (0.80–1.31) 1.04 (0.80–1.34)
  1. Obesity: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2
  2. Elevated blood pressure: systolic blood pressure and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg or the use of antihypertensive medication
  3. Elevated plasma glucose: fasting plasma glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) (with a fasting duration of at least 3 h) or casual plasma glucose (for less than 3 h or without regard to the time since the last meal) ≥ 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) and/or the use of antidiabetic medication
  4. Dyslipidemia: triglycerides ≥ 1.69 mmol/L (150 mg/dL) and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 1.03 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) and/or the use of antihyperlipidemic medication
  5. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  6. aHazard ratios adjusted for age
  7. bHazard ratios adjusted for age, smoking status (never, past, or current smoker), alcohol drinking status (never, past, or current drinker), marital status (yes or no), educational attainment (≤ 15, 16–18, or ≥ 19 years), physical activity (low, middle, high), occupation category (white-collar, blue-collar, or no working), and menopausal status (pre or post) only in women