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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants with or without metabolic syndrome by sex

From: Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cancer mortality in the general Japanese population: the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study

  Men Pa Women Pa
Without MetS With MetS Without MetS With MetS
N % N % N % N %
Number of participants 3973 88.4 522 11.6   6406 91.1 622 8.9  
  N Median (IQR) N Median (IQR) Pa N Median (IQR) N Median (IQR) Pa
Age (year)   58 (45–64)   56 (46–63) 0.016   57 (47–64)   60 (53–65) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2)   22.4 (20.8–24.0)   26.6 (25.8–28.1) < 0.001   22.6 (20.8–24.4)   27.0 (25.9–28.9) < 0.001
SBP (mmHg)   128 (115–141)   144 (135–156) < 0.001   124 (112–139)   143 (134–156) < 0.001
DBP (mmHg)   77 (70–86)   88 (82–94) < 0.001   75 (67–83)   86 (80–92) < 0.001
Plasma Glucose (mmol/L)   5.4 (4.9–6.1)   6.0 (5.3–7.1) < 0.001   5.3 (4.9–5.8)   6.0 (5.2–7.1) < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)   4.7 (4.2–5.3)   5.1 (4.4–5.7) < 0.001   5.0 (4.4–5.6)   5.4 (4.8–6.0) < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)   1.2 (1.1–1.5)   1.0 (0.9–1.2) < 0.001   1.3 (1.2–1.6)   1.1 (1.0–1.3) < 0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/L)   1.1 (0.8–1.6)   2.1 (1.5–2.8) < 0.001   1.0 (0.7–1.4)   1.9 (1.4–2.5) < 0.001
Smoking   %   %    %   %  
 Current 1946 49.0 230 44.1 0.101 336 5.3 30 4.8 0.345
 Former 1062 26.7 149 28.5   174 2.7 11 1.8  
 Never 804 20.2 120 23.0   5535 86.4 541 87.1  
 Data missing 161 4.1 23 4.4   361 5.6 40 6.3  
Alcohol drinking
 Current 2811 70.8 343 65.7 0.210 1488 23.2 120 19.3 0.022
 Former 123 3.1 22 4.2   78 1.2 14 2.2  
 Never 788 19.8 107 20.5   4353 68.0 411 66.1  
 Data missing 251 6.3 50 9.6   487 7.6 77 12.4  
Diabetes mellitus 83 2.1 22 4.2 0.002 67 1.0 43 6.9 < 0.001
Hypertension 334 8.4 99 19.0 < 0.001 619 9.7 205 33.0 < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia 43 1.1 11 2.1 0.002 93 1.5 49 7.9 < 0.001
Marital status
 Married 3644 91.7 473 90.6 0.278 5867 91.6 570 91.6 0.957
 Single 310 7.8 48 9.2   519 8.1 50 8.0  
 Data missing 19 0.5 1 0.2   20 0.3 2 0.3  
Education
 ≤ 15 years 1766 44.5 224 42.9 0.730 3176 49.6 364 58.5 < 0.001
 16–18 years 1683 42.4 231 44.3   2558 39.9 213 34.2  
 ≥ 19 years 503 12.7 67 12.8   650 10.1 43 6.9  
 Data missing 21 0.5 0 0   22 0.3 2 0.3  
Physical activity
 Low 1232 31.0 204 39.1 0.001 2813 43.9 276 44.4 0.321
 Middle 1824 45.9 211 40.4   2942 45.9 293 47.1  
 High 730 18.4 81 15.5   335 5.2 24 3.9  
 Data missing 187 4.7 26 5.0   316 4.9 29 4.7  
Occupation
 White-collar 869 21.9 142 27.2 0.002 1491 23.3 125 20.1 < 0.001
 Blue-collar 2548 64.1 296 56.7   2296 35.8 192 30.9  
 No working 532 13.4 84 16.1   2596 40.5 303 48.7  
 Data missing 24 0.6 0 0   23 0.4 2 0.3  
  1. MetS metabolic syndrome, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL high-density lipoprotein, IQR interquartile range
  2. aThe Mann–Whitney U test or χ2 test were performed