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Table 2 Comparison of cardiac history, risk factors and pharmacotherapy between study participants in those with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

From: Evaluating the Diabetes–Cardiology interface: a glimpse into the diabetes management of cardiology inpatients in western Sydney’s ‘diabetes hotspot’ and the establishment of a novel model of care

Parameter Non-T2D T2D P-value
N 136 99  
Coronary artery disease (N; %) 50 (37) 51 (51)  0.024*
Stroke (N; %) 8 (6) 12 (12) NS
Previous coronary revascularisation 33 (24) 32 (32)
Percutaneous coronary intervention# 24 (18) 23 (23)
Coronary artery graft surgery 12 (9) 14 (14)
Heart failure 42 (31) 33 (33)
 Left ventricle ejection fraction ≤ 40% 51 ± 18 53.6 ± 15.6
Previous arrhythmia 49 (36) 26 (26)
Valvular disease 51 (38) 36 (36)
Cardiopulmonary disease and other risk factors
Current smoker (N; %) 23 (17) 14 (14) NS
Ex-smoker (N; %) 36 (26) 32 (32)
Pulmonary hypertension 18 (13) 18 (18)
Hypertension 80 (59) 80 (80)  < 0.001*
Dyslipidaemia 56 (41) 61 (61)  0.002*
NS
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.3 ± 1.3 4.0 ± 1.4
 LDL-c (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.9
 HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 1.1
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 2.1
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 9 (7) 10 (10) NS
Asthma 18 (13) 14 (14) NS
Cardiac medications
 Aspirin 38 (28) 50 (50)   0.002*
 Dual anti-platelet agents 10 (7) 16 (16) NS
 Clopidogrel 13 (10) 18 (18)
 Prasugrel 1 (0.7) 2 (2)
 Ticagrelor 2 (1) 2 (2)
 Warfarin 5 (4) 5 (5)
 Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants 18 (13) 9 (9)
 Nitrates 9 (7) 10 (10)
 Ivabradine 2 (1) 3 (3)
 Digoxin 16 (12) 5 (5)
 Beta-blockers 44 (32) 44 (44)
 Alpha-blockers 9 (7) 9 (9)
 Calcium channel blocker 22 (16) 22 (22)
 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 31 (23) 19 (19)
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 31 (23) 44 (44)  0.002*
 Thiazide diuretic 9 (7) 12 (12) NS
 Loop diuretic 21 (15) 32 (32)  0.007*
 Aldosterone receptor blocker 10 (7) 11 (11) NS
 Centrally-acting antihypertensive 1 (< 1) 1(1)  < 0.001*
 Statins 61 (45) 73 (74) NS
 Ezetimibe 8 (6) 12 (12)  
  1. Values are shown as N (%) and mean ± SD; LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol. *denotes statistical significance at P value < 0.05; **indicates some data missing or not recorded; ***denotes significant differences in distribution using Chi square test (P value < 0.05); #T2D cohort—PCI revealed disease in 17 involving left anterior descending artery, 15 left circumflex, 14 right coronary artery, and 4 left main. Values in parentheses indicate percentage of the cohort; NS not statistically significant