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Table 3 Effect of lactoferrin on the PBM levels of Cyclin D-1, PPAR- γ, SIRT-1, TLR-4, and NFκB in type 2 diabetic patients before and after lactoferrin treatment

From: Antidiabetic efficacy of lactoferrin in type 2 diabetic pediatrics; controlling impact on PPAR-γ, SIRT-1, and TLR4 downstream signaling pathway

Variables Diabetic patients (N = 30) Controls (N = 30)
Before lactoferrin After lactoferrin
PBM lysate
 TLR-4 (ng/mL) 4.9 ± 1.0a 3.76 ± 1.07b 2.43 ± 0.69
 NFκB-p65 (µg/mL) 183.20 ± 49.19a 98.68 ± 29.80b 15.5 ± 2.87
 Cyclin D-1 (ng/mL) 8.13 ± 0.66a 14.49 ± 1.2b 21.43 ± 1.82
PBM nuclear extract
 PPAR-γ (ng/mL) 2.78 ± 0.44a 5.13 ± 0.56b 7.79 ± 1.04
 SIRT-1 (ng/mL) 2.2 ± 0.6a 2.6 ± 1.03b 3.1 ± 2.04
 NrF2/ARE binding activity 0.06 ± 0.01a 0.08 ± 0.01b 0.12 ± 0.069
  1. Values are means ± SDM
  2. aSignificant difference from normal group, at P ≤ 0.05
  3. bSignificant difference from diabetic patients before therapy, at P ≤ 0.05