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Table 1 Characteristics of participants stratified according to sex and neck circumference

From: Neck circumference is associated with non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in individuals at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk: cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

  Men
N = 366
Women
N = 441
Q1
n = 89
Q2
n = 93
Q3
n = 86
Q4
n = 98
p-value Q1
n = 104
Q2
n = 106
Q3
n = 112
Q4
n = 119
p-value
Age (years) 45 (5) 45 (5) 45 (4) 46 (5) 0.789 45 (5) 46 (4) 46 (5) 46 (5) 0.320
BMI (kg/m2) 22.3 (2.4) 24.7 (2.3) 26.1 (2.3) 27.4 (1.6) < 0.001* 22.3 (2.2) 24.2 (2.5) 25.2 92.0)Ω ¥ 26.7 (2.1)Ω ¥ π < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 80.5 (7.3) 86.3 (6.5)Ω 89.9 (6.6)Ω ¥ 94.5 (5.2)Ω ¥ π < 0.001* 73.7 (6.0) 78.2 (6.8) 80.9 (6.0)Ω ¥ 85.0 (6.3)Ω ¥ π < 0.001*
Systolic BP (mmHg) 118 (12) 119 (12) 123 (15) 125 (13)Ω 0.002* 108 (12) 110 (13) 112 (13) 113 (12)Ω 0.014*
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 74 (9) 77 (10) 77 (10) 81 (9)Ω¥ < 0.001* 69 (9) 71 (9) 72 (9) 73 (9)Ω 0.005*
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.02 (0.15) 1.09 (0.15) 1.05 (0.15) 1.11 (0.42) 0.035 0.78 (0.11) 0.81 (0.12) 0.85 (0.14) 0.84 (0.13) < 0.001*
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 90.3 (13.9) 84.6 (14.4) 89.4 (15.2) 86.0 (17.2) 0.073 94.1 (14.5) 89.8 (15.3) 86.7 (16.5) 87.3 (15.4) 0.002*
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 102.8 (7.9) 103.8 (7.9) 105.2 (8.1) 105.6 (8.3) 0.064* 97.8 (6.4) 99.3 (7.8) 100.9 (7.2)Ω 100.9 (7.2)Ω 0.004*
2-h glucose (mg/dL) 11.6 (6.5) 115.6 (25.5) 121.5 (29.6) 123.1 (26.9)Ω 0.016* 112.4 (24.0) 116.8 (22.8) 118.2 (21.6) 123.3 (26.0)Ω 0.009*
HOMA-IR 0.8 (0.3 to 1.5) 1.3 (0.9 to 2.1) 1.7 (0.1 to 2.4) 1.9 (1.3 to 2.9) < 0.001* 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.7) 1.3 (0.7 to 2.0) 1.7 (1.1 to 2.5) < 0.001*
Leptin (ng/mL) 5.6 (2.3 to 10.7) 6.7 (3.9 to 12.6) 7.2 (4.8 to 11.4) 7.9 (5.3 to 12.1) 0.002* 12.4 (7.8 to 21.3) 15.2 (8.1 to 24.3) 17.6 (10.6 to 29.1) 18.8 (12.1 to 30.1) 0.001*
Adiponectin (mcg/mL) 10.3 (6.2 to 15.1) 9.8 (5.8 to 13.7) 9.6 (6.5 to 13.4) 6.5 (4.0 to 12.2) 0.216 11.8 (7.6 to 16.8) 10.6 (6.0 to 15.2) 9.4 (5.6 to 13.9) 9.7 (4.9 to 15.5) 0.358
E-selectin (ng/mL) 61.1 (39.0 to 105.8) 77.8 (51.2 to 127.1) 80.5 (41.5 to 114.4) 87.8 (65.2 to 131.6) 0.006* 61.9 (38.5 to 92.8) 62.1 (37.5 to 99.8) 66.0 (38.2 to 114.2) 76.4 (47.6 to 120.5) 0.162*
Total cholesterol# (mg/dL) 211 (187 to 235) 206 (182 to 231) 219 (188 to 239) 218 (194 to 243) 0.156 206 (185 to 238) 215 (192 to 238) 207 (186 to 242) 213 (189 to 143) 0.761
Non HDL-cholesterol# (mg/dL) 159 (128 to 181) 160 (132 to 179) 165 (137 to 185) 168 (146 to 192) 0.001* 144 (123 to 169) 155 (129 to 171) 149 (126 to 178) 155 (131 to 188) 0.140
HDL-cholesterol# (mg/dL) 53.0 (45 to 62) 48 (42 to 54) 47 (40 to 55) 46 (41 to 53) 0.059* 63 (57 to 70) 60 (52 to 69) 58 (49 to 66) 54 (47 to 68) < 0.001*
LDL-total# (mg/dL) 138 (111 to 149) 134 (104 to 151) 135 (111 to 158) 138 (116 to 157) 0.527 111 (102 to 145) 134 (107 to 147) 124 (107 to 152) 130 (107 to 156) 0.493
LDL R# (mg/dL) 116 (92 to 129) 109 (86 to 125) 112 (88 to 132) 114 (93 to 129) 0.672 101 (82 to 122) 108 (85 to 124) 105 (88 to 125) 107 (90 to 130) 0.602
IDL-cholesterol# (mg/dL) 14 (10 to 19) 15 (12 to 21) 17 (12 to 22) 18 (14 to 22) 0.003* 14 (10 to 18) 13 (11 to 20) 13 (9 to 18) 15 (11-23) 0.012
Triglycerides# (mg/dL) 92 (71 to 127) 108 (86 to 140) 114 (89 to 174) 146 (96 to 193) < 0.001* 76 (61 to 98) 84 (70 to 115) 82 (67 to 110) 106 (73 to 144) < 0.001*
HDL2-C# (mg/dL) 13.0 (10 to 17) 11 (8 to 14) 11 (8 to 15) 11 (9 to 13) 0.001* 19 (16 to 24) 18 (14 to 22) 16 (13 to 20) 15 (12 to 20) < 0.001*
HDL3-C# (mg/dL) 39 (34 to 46) 36 (33 to 40) 37 (31 to 41) 36 (32 to 41) 0.008 43 (40 to 48) 41 (38 to 47) 41 (37 to 46) 40 (36 to 46) 0.002
Large LDL-C# (mg/dL) 40 (30 to 49) 39 (31 to 49) 40 (33 to 50) 39 (32 to 52) 0.763* 43 (30 to 61) 44 (31 to 58) 41 (29 to 55) 42 (33 to 59) 0.723
Small LDL-C# (mg/dL) 53 (38 to 79) 60 (37 to 79) 62 (42 to 81) 72 (48 to 88) 0.060* 38 (29 to 49) 41 (31 to 54) 44 (32 to 61) 47 (33 to 64) 0.005*
Log LDL DR# (mg/dL) 0.37 (0.02 to 0.73) 0.48 (0.09 to 0.72) 0.52 (0.13 to 0.73) 0.59 (0.17 to 0.81) 0.295 − 0.17 (− 0.60 to 0.36) − 0.04 (− 0.41 to 0.33) 0.14 (− 0.31 to 0.58) 0.20 (− 0.27 to 0.53) 0.012*
VLDL3-C# (mg/dL) 13 (10 to 15) 15 (12 to 18) 14 (13 to 17) 16 (13 to 20) < 0.001 12 (9 to 14) 12 (11 to 15) 12 (10 to 14) 14 (11 to 17) < 0.001
TG/HDL ratio 1.7 (1.2 to 2.7) 2.4 (1.7 to 3.3) 2.4 (1.6 to 4.0) 3.1 (2.0 to 4.5) < 0.001 1.2 (0.9 to 1.6) 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) 1.4 (1.1 to 2.2) 1.9 (1.2 to 2.7) < 0.001
  1. BMI, body mass index NC, neck circumference BP, blood pressure
  2. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the formula of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration—CKD-EPI
  3. Lipid profile evaluated by Vertical Auto Profile
  4. Values are means (SD) or medians (interquartile intervals)
  5. Men: first quartile, Q1, < 36.5 cm; second quartile, Q2, 36.5 to < 37.9 cm; third quartile, Q3, 37.9 to < 39.5 cm; forth quartile, Q4, ≥ 39.5 cm. Women: first quartile, Q1, < 31.4 cm; second quartile, Q2, 31.4 to < 32.5 cm; third quartile, Q3, 32.5 to < 34 cm; forth quartile, Q4, ≥ 34 cm
  6. p value, ANOVA was used. Ω versus Q1; ¥ versus Q2; π versus Q3. # Kruskal–Wallis test was used. * p for trend < 0.05