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Table 1 Univariate associations between demographic factors and self-efficacy, social support, and attitude towards self-care scores

From: The association between attitude, self-efficacy, and social support and adherence to diabetes self-care behavior

Characteristic N (%) Attitude towards self-care Social support Self-efficacy Self-care
M ± SD P value M ± SD P value M ± SD P value M ± SD P value
Age M ± SD 57.5 ± 4.8 30.6 ± 1.7 135.5 ± 14.7 38.7 ± 5.8 38.1 ± 4.7
Gender
 Male 101 (25) 29.8 ± 7.8 0.772* 135 ± 33.0 0.21* 35.1 ± 6.8 0.007* 38.2 ± 6.7 0.38*
 Female 302 (75) 30.3 ± 9.2   142.7 ± 26.3   39.2 ± 7.4   39.4 ± 6.1  
Marital status
 Married 367 (91) 34.5 ± 8.7 0.01* 141.5 ± 27.8 0.51* 43.1 ± 7.8 0.001* 40.2 ± 5.6 0.46*
 Single 36 (9) 28.2 ± 8.3   137.8 ± 26.4   37.2 ± 5.9   39.1 ± 5.3  
Education
 Illiteracy or elementary school 116 (29) 29.2 ± 7.5 0.009** 130.2 ± 26.4 0.001** 34.8 ± 7.6 0.001** 35.6 ± 7.3 0.008**
 Secondary 206 (51) 34.8 ± 7.2   137.6 ± 28.3   42.2 ± 5.2   36.2 ± 5.9  
 University 81 (20) 35.4 ± 8.5   158.9 ± 27.1   44.6 ± 6.3   41.3 ± 5.1  
BMI
 Normal 113 (28) 31.8 ± 8.9 0.819** 148.8 ± 18.8 0.05** 41.6 ± 7.8 0.71** 40.4 ± 5.8 0.65**
 Overweight 205 (51) 30.6 ± 9.1   140.2 ± 19.4   40.3 ± 8.3   38.7 ± 5.5  
 Obesity 85 (21) 30.0 ± 8.2   132.8 ± 21.7   39.3 ± 8.7   38.4 ± 7.2  
Occupation
 Housewife 242 (60) 31.0 ± 8.7 0.835** 144.7 ± 31.0 0.810** 40.4 ± 7.6 0.04** 39.2 ± 7.3 0.79**
 Employed 69 (17) 31.1 ± 9.2   138.8 ± 28.2   41.7 ± 6.8   40.1 ± 6.0  
 Unemployed 12 (3) 29.2 ± 8.6   133.7 ± 23.6   36.9 ± 9.0   38.0 ± 6.8  
 Retired 80 (20) 30.5 ± 8.2   137.1 ± 28.0   34.5 ± 8.6   39.2 ± 6.2  
Disease duration (years)
 < 10 301 (75) 31.0 ± 5.9   143.5 ± 27.3 0.47* 41.9 ± 5.8 0.001* 40.3 ± 6.5 0.20*
 > 10 102 (25) 30.3 ± 9.3   138.6 ± 27.0   35.8 ± 6.2   38.5 ± 5.1  
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation
  2. * Using t test
  3. ** Using ANOVA