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Table 4 Multiple comparison of BMI, WC, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C across the study groups

From: Comparative effects of vitamin D and vitamin C supplementations with and without endurance physical activity on metabolic syndrome patients: a randomized controlled trial

Multiple comparisons: Tukey HSD
Dependent variables Mean difference (I–J) Std. error Sig. 95% confidence interval Mean difference (I–J) Std. error Sig. 95% confidence interval
(I) Group (J) Group Lower bound Upper bound Lower bound Upper bound
Changes in BMI Change in WC
  Vit Da Vit D + PA 1.4* .45 .029 .09 2.72 1.19 .99 .831 − 1.6 4.07
Vit C .74 .43 .512 − .50 1.99 1.18 .94 .802 − 1.5 3.91
Vit C + PA .79 .44 .473 − .48 2.08 4.17* .97 .001 1.3 6.98
Placebo .16 .43 .991 − 1.09 1.42 1.35 .95 .714 − 1.3 4.11
Placebo + PAf .63 .44 .722 − .66 1.93 3.54* .98 .006 .70 6.39
  Vit Cc Vit D + PA .66 .44 .675 − .63 1.95 .007 .97 1.01 − 2.8 2.83
Vit C + PA .05 .43 1.04 − 1.20 1.31 2.98* .95 .021 .22 5.74
Placebo − .57 .42 .755 − 1.81 .65 .16 .93 1.03 − 2.52 2.86
Placebo + PA − .11 .44 1.01 − 1.38 1.16 2.36 .96 .142 − .43 5.15
  Vit D + PAb Vit C + PA − .60 .45 .772 − 1.93 .72 2.97* 1.00 .041 .07 5.88
Placebo − 1.23 .45 .074 − 2.54 .06 .16 .98 1.01 − 2.68 3.01
Placebo + PA − .77 .46 .551 − 2.11 .56 2.35 1.01 .192 − .58 5.29
  Vit C + PAd Placebo − .63 .43 .705 − 1.90 .64 − 2.81* .96 .041 − 5.60 − .034
Placebo + PA − .16 .45 .998 − 1.47 1.14 − .62 .99 .987 − 3.49 2.24
  Placeboe Placebo + PA .46 .44 .901 − .82 1.75 2.19 .97 .221 − .62 5.00
 Change in TC  Change in TG
  Vit Da Vit D + PA − .047 8.33 1.00 − 24.15 24.05 10.96 11.48 .931 − 22.23 44.16
Vit C − 18.38 7.89 .190 − 41.21 4.44 26.86 10.87 .141 − 4.59 58.31
Vit C + PA − 9.86 8.14 .830 − 33.40 13.66 29.52 11.21 .096 − 2.89 61.95
Placebo − 23.92* 7.97 .037 − 46.97 − .86 − 6.64 10.98 .990 − 38.40 25.10
Placebo + PAf − 3.72 8.23 .998 − 27.53 20.08 10.67 11.34 .935 − 22.12 43.47
  Vit Cc Vit D + PA 18.33 8.18 .227 − 5.33 42.00 − 15.89 11.27 .721 − 48.49 16.70
Vit C + PA 8.51 7.98 .894 − 14.57 31.60 2.66 11.00 1.00 − 29.14 34.47
Placebo − 5.53 7.81 .981 − 28.13 17.059 − 33.51* 10.76 .027 − 64.63 − 2.38
Placebo + PA 14.65 8.08 .461 − 8.71 38.02 − 16.18 11.13 .694 − 48.37 16.00
  Vit D + PAb Vit C + PA − 9.82 8.42 .852 − 34.16 14.52 18.56 11.60 .600 − 14.97 52.09
Placebo − 23.8* 8.25 .050 − 47.74 .005 − 17.61 11.37 .634 − 50.50 15.27
Placebo + PA − 3.67 8.51 .998 − 28.28 20.92 − .29 11.72 1.00 − 34.19 33.60
  Vit C + PAd Placebo − 14.05 8.06 .506 − 37.35 9.25 − 36.17* 11.10 .017 − 68.28 − 4.07
Placebo + PA 6.14 8.32 .977 − 17.91 30.19 − 18.85 11.46 .571 − 51.98 14.28
  Placeboe Placebo + PA 20.19 8.15 .139 − 3.38 43.77 17.32 11.23 .638 − 15.15 49.80
 Change in LDL-C  Change in HDL-C
  Vit Da Vit D + PA − 2.36 8.68 1.00 − 27.46 22.74 .60 4.03 1.00 − 11.07 12.27
Vit C − 23.47* 8.22 .055 − 47.25 .30 − 1.39 3.82 .992 − 12.45 9.66
Vit C + PA − 12.65 8.47 .669 − 37.17 11.85 − 15.57* 3.94 .002 − 26.97 − 4.17
Placebo − 21.99 8.30 .093 − 46.00 2.01 − 2.96 3.86 .972 − 14.13 8.19
Placebo + PAf − 5.99 8.57 .982 − 30.79 18.79 .68 3.98 1.00 − 10.84 12.22
  Vit Cc Vit D + PA 21.11 8.52 .138 − 3.53 45.76 2.0 3.96 .994 − 9.46 13.46
Vit C + PA 10.81 8.31 .784 − 13.23 34.86 − 14.18* 3.86 .005 − 25.36 − 2.99
Placebo 1.481 8.13 1.00 − 22.05 25.01 − 1.57 3.78 .998 − 12.51 9.37
Placebo + PA 17.47 8.41 .306 − 6.85 41.81 2.08 3.91 .995 − 9.23 13.40
  Vit D + PAb Vit C + PA − 10.29 8.77 .848 − 35.65 15.05 − 16.18* 4.07 .002 − 27.97 − 4.38
Placebo − 19.63 8.60 .208 − 44.50 5.23 − 3.57 4.00 .941 − 15.13 7.99
Placebo + PA − 3.63 8.86 .998 − 29.26 21.99 .083 4.12 1.00 − 11.83 12.00
  Vit C + PAd Placebo − 9.33 8.39 .876 − 33.61 14.93 12.60* 3.90 .012 1.31 23.89
Placebo + PA 6.65 8.66 .972 − 18.39 31.71 16.26* 4.03 .001 4.61 27.91
  Placeboe Placebo + PA 15.99 8.49 .417 − 8.56 40.55 3.65 3.95 .931 − 7.76 15.07
  1. Data are mean ± standard Error (SE)
  2. PA, physical activity; BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumferences; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. * The mean difference is significant at the .05 level
  4. aReceiving 2000 IU vitamin D per day
  5. bReceiving 2000 IU vitamin D per day plus 30 min endurance physical activity
  6. cReceiving 500 mg vitamin C per day
  7. dReceiving 500 mg vitamin C per day plus 30 min endurance physical activity
  8. eReceiving one placebo per day
  9. fReceiving one placebo per day plus 30 min endurance physical activity
  10. gObtained from ANOVA, Tukey method