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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Comparative effects of vitamin D and vitamin C supplementations with and without endurance physical activity on metabolic syndrome patients: a randomized controlled trial

Variables Groups (n = 141) P valueg
Vit D (n = 24)a Vit D + PA (n = 21)b Vit C (n = 26)c Vit C + PA (n = 23)d Placebo (n = 25)e Placebo + PA (n = 22)f
Age (years) 40.5 ± 5.9 40.4 ± 5.9 41.2 ± 5.8 40.8 ± 5.8 42.6 ± 5.6 41.6 ± 6.4 .812
Female (%) 67 67 62 70 48 59 .725
Family history of obesity (%) 75 81 65 65 76 50 .314
Family history of DM (%) 50 67 46 35 60 41 .321
Family history of BP (%) 58 62 46 57 60 41 .753
Weight (kg) 84.2 ± 16.7 81.7 ± 9.6 81 ± 13.2 79.7 ± 13.6 82.3 ± 14 74.9 ± 12.7 .354
BMI (kg/m2) 33.1 ± 5.9 33.4 ± 4.3 32 ± 6.1 32.3 ± 5.9 32.8 ± 4.3 30.1 ± 4.7 .475
WC (cm) 109.2 ± 8 108.5 ± 7.7 108.2 ± 10.4 107.8 ± 8.7 107.6 ± 9.6 111.5 ± 10.2 .824
FPG (mg/dL) 108 ± 17.1 106 ± 11.8 106.6 ± 19.9 104 ± 13.7 110.6 ± 17.2 106.2 ± 18.1 .871
SBP (mmHg) 127.1 ± 11.5 129 ± 12.7 130.2 ± 12 129 ± 11.4 125.6 ± 14.5 128.6 ± 10.8 .810
DBP (mmHg) 79.8 ± 9.5 83.6 ± 9.4 81.3 ± 8.3 79.3 ± 7.1 80 ± 6.9 82.5 ± 5.9 .421
TC (mg/dL) 173.5 ± 60.8 194.7 ± 32.2 174.8 ± 41.5 178.3 ± 29.8 185.9 ± 39 149 ± 35.8 .326
TG (mg/dL) 229.3 ± 113.8 184.5 ± 98.5 268.4 ± 107.2* 176.1 ± 87.4 147.4 ± 43 161.7 ± 70.1 .001
LDL-C (mg/dL) 120.7 ± 64.4 149.6 ± 35.8 114.5 ± 47.5 135.5 ± 32.7 150.4 ± 39.8 153.5 ± 38.4 .007
HDL-C (mg/dL) 34.9 ± 17.3 40.9 ± 14.4 33 ± 13.5 37.6 ± 11** 30 ± 8.5 40.8 ± 16.5 .046
Vit D (ng/mL) 10.8 ± 2.8 10.4 ± 3.2 12.2 ± 4 11 ± 4 .434
Vit C (ng/mL) .9 ± .4 .8 ± .3 1 ± .3 .9 ± .3 .320
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. Vit D, vitamin D; PA, physical activity; Vit C, vitamin C; DM, diabetes mellitus; BP, blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumferences; DM, diabetes mellitus
  3. *P < .05 compared with the placebo group, using Tukey’s test
  4. **P < .05 compared with the vitamin D and “placebo plus physical activity” groups, using Tukey’s test
  5. P < .05 compared with the other groups, using Tukey’s test
  6. aReceiving 2000 IU vitamin D per day
  7. bReceiving 2000 IU vitamin D per day plus 30 min endurance physical activity
  8. cReceiving 500 mg vitamin C per day
  9. dReceiving 500 mg vitamin C per day plus 30 min endurance physical activity
  10. eReceiving one placebo per day
  11. fReceiving one placebo per day plus 30 min endurance physical activity
  12. gObtained from ANOVA or Chi square test, where appropriate