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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies which assessed relationship between neck circumference and cardiometabolic risk factors

From: Neck circumference and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Coun try Type of study Populati on n Male/fe male Agey Diagnostic criteria of outcome Unit of NC Sex group Confounder Outcome Measure of effect Measure of associati on Quality score
Khalangot et al. [14] Ukraine Cross-sectional Healthy not registere dasT2D patients 196 46/150  > 44 HbAlc ≥ 6.5%   Both sexes Gender, BMI DM 1.43 (1.05–1.96); p = 0.024 Adjuste OR (95% CI) 8
Yan et al. [9] China Cross-sectional Healthy 2092 971/1121  > 65 According to the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria [1]   Male
Female
Age MetS 11.53 (5.57–23.87) 7.69(4.91-12.04) Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Q4/Q1) 7
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 Male
Female
Obesity 26.26 (11.02–62.57)
17.16 (9.59–30.70)
Fasting TG21.7 mmol/l Male
Female
HighTG 3.06 (2.06–4.54)
2.01 (1.59–2.56)
Blood
pressure > 140/90 mmHg or known treatment for hypertension
Male
Female
HighBP 2.41 (1.94–3.00)
4.37 (2.81–6.7)
FBS ≥ 6.1  mmol/l or known treatment for diabetes Male
Female
High FBS 1.89 (1.53–2.34)
1.68 (1.41–2.00)
Zepeda et al. [39] USA Cross-sectional Healthy 1058 561/497 6–8 Systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥  95th percentile for age, sex and height NC > 90th percentile Both sexes Age, gender and height High BP 1.59 (1.05–2.40) Adjusted OR (95% CI 8
de LucenaFerretti et al. [20] Brazi1 Cross-sectional Healthy 1667 751/916 10–17 Overweight and obesity according to the definitions of WHO  ≥ 34.25 in boys and  ≥  31.25 in girls Both sexes Sex, age, weight, BMI, WC, pubertal stage, SBP, DBP, % body fat Overweight Obesity 1.70 (0.85–3.39) AdjustedOR (95% CI 7
 ≥ 37.95 in boys and  ≥ 32.65 in girls
3.26 (1.00–10.59)
Pereira et al. [17] Brazi1 Cross-sectional College students 702 62.7% were women 20–24 NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III Neck circumference  ≥ 39 cm for men and  ≥  35 cm for women Both sexes Sex, age, occupational situation MetS 5.4 (1.4–22.1) Adjusted OR (95% CI 7
Zhou et al. [18] China Cross sectional Healthy 4201 2508/1693 20–85 MetS according to the IDF criteria
Increased TG: ( ≥  1.7 mmol/L)
Decreased HDL-C (≤ 1.29 mmol/L for women)
High BP:(SBP >  130 orDBP ≥ 85 mmHg)
Increased FBS ( ≥  5.60 mmol/L)
NC of  ≥ 37 cm for men and  ≥ 33 cm for women Male Age, BMI, WC and waist to hip ratio MetS 1.29 (1.12–1.48) Adjusted OR (95% CI 8
High BP 1.15 (1.01–1.32)
Increased TG 1.16 (1.02–1.33)
Increased FBS 1.26 (1.06–1.50)
Female MetS 1.44 (1.20–1.72)
High BP 1.22 (1.03–1.46)
Increased TG 1.42 (1.18–1.71)
Increased FBS 1.32 (1.06–1.65)
Decreased HDL-C 1.29 (1.10–1.51)
Kuciene et al. [22] Lithuania Case–control Case: hypertensive
Control: healthy
1947 962/985 12–15 Prehypertension: SBPorDBP ≥ 90th and  < 95th percentile
Hypertension: SBP or DBP  ≥ 95th percentile
NC at  > 90th percentile Both sexes Age, sex Prehypertension 2.99 (1.88–4.77) Adjusted OR (95% CI) 7
Hypertension 4.05 (3.03–5.41)
Prehyper tension/hypertension 3.75 (2.86–4.91)
Choet al. [19] South Korea Cohort Healthy 3521 1784/1737 42–71 DM was defined based on the WHO criteria –1st quartile: men: 35.1 cm Women: 30.7 cm
–4th quartile: Men: 40.3 cm
Women: 35.2 cm
Male
Female
Age, BMI orWC, family history of DM, antihypertensive medication, TG, alanine aminotransferase, hsCRP, PRA, HbAlc, HOMA-IRandlGI, daytime sleepiness Incidence of diabetes mellitus 1.746 (1.037–2.942)
2.077 (1.068–4.038)
Adjusted
RR (95% CI)
8
Guo et al. [43] China Cross-sectional Normal 6802 3631/3171 5–18 According to The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents NC  ≥  90th percentile Normal weight subjects Age, gender BMI, WC Prehyper tension 1.439 (1.118–1.853) Adjusted OR (95% CI) 8
Overweight subjects 1.161 (0.738–1.826)
Obese subjects 0.892 (0.429–1.854)
Vallianou et al. [44] Greece Cross-sectional consecutive adults who had visited the ‘Polykliniki’ General Hospital for a health check-up 490 194/296 18–89 CRP > 0.1 mg/dL   Total Age and gender years of school, smoking, physical activity status, Diet and alcohol intake High-SE C-reactive protein 1.14 (1.05–1.23) Adjusted OR (95% CI) 7
Kelishadi et al. [21] Iran Cross-sectional School students 23043 11708/11335 6–18 Overweight was considered as BMI between the 85th and 94th centiles for age and sex, obesity as BMI  ≥  95th centile; and abdominal obesity as WHtR > 0.5.   Total Adjusted for age, sex and living area Over weight
General obesity
Abdominal obesity
1.07 (1.06–1.08)
1.10 (1.08–1.11)
1.20 (1.18–1.21)
Adjusted OR (95% CI) 7
Zen et al. [45] Brazi1 Case–control CHD patients 376 242/134 40 years or over Significant coronary artery disease defined by the presence of stenosis  ≥ 50% in a major epicardial coronary artery-left anterior descendent, circumflex or right coronary artery or their branches with or at least 2.5 mm of diameter 41.6 cm in men and 37.0 cm in women Total Age, sex, years at school, smoking, hypertension, HDL-C and diabetes mellitus Significant coronary stenosis 2.4 (1.1–5.3) Adjusted OR (95% CI) 7