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Table 4 The odds ratios of type 2 diabetes across quartiles of energy-adjusted total protein intake by dietary patterns

From: Association between dietary protein intake and type 2 diabetes varies by dietary pattern

  Energy-adjusted total protein intake quintiles, OR (95% CI) P for trend
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Total protein
 Overall 1 0.89 (0.66, 1.20) 1.09 (0.80, 1.46) 1.23 (0.89, 1.69) 0.117
 Legumes and seafood 1 0.65 (0.37, 1.10) 0.97 (0.58, 1.61) 0.78 (0.45, 1.36) 0.892
 Red meat 1 1.74 (0.97, 3.27) 2.80 (1.57, 5.01) 3.12 (1.65, 5.91) < 0.001
 Refined grains 1 0.93 (0.58, 1.51) 1.02 (0.62, 1.69) 1.06 (0.63, 1.81) 0.298
Animal protein
 Overall 1 0.76 (0.56, 1.02) 0.81 (0.59, 1.12) 1.32 (0.93, 1.89) 0.104
 Legumes and seafood 1 0.80 (0.47, 1.37) 0.85 (0.50, 1.51) 1.03 (0.54, 1.77) 0.770
 Red meat 1 2.42 (1.38, 4.33) 2.87 (1.57 ,5.34) 3.48 (1.87, 6.60) < 0.001
 Refined grains 1 0.70 (0.45, 1.10) 0.64 (0.40, 1.03) 0.55 (0.32, 0.89) < 0.05
Plant protein
 Overall 1 0.86 (0.65, 1.14) 0.75 (0.57, 1.02) 0.72 (0.51, 0.95) < 0.05
 Legumes and seafood 1 0.77 (0.48, 1.24) 0.64 (0.40, 1.01) 0.58 (0.33, 0.96) < 0.05
 Red meat 1 1.48 (0.87, 2.63) 1.28 (0.74, 2.27) 1.20 (0.628, 2.21) 0.205
 Refined grains 1 0.88 (0.54, 1.42) 1.06 (0.67, 1.69) 1.09 (0.67, 1.81) 0.289
  1. a Adjusted age (continuous), gender (male, female), PAL (continuous), smoking status (yes, no), alcohol consumption (yes, no), coffee consumption (yes, no), tea consumption (yes, no), annual income (< 9000; 9000–15,000; > 15,000—25,000; > 25,000), education (low, middle, high), total energy intake (continuous), carbohydrate to energy ratio from refined grains or tubers, from the other plant sources (continuous), energy-adjusted intake (continuous) of SFA, PUFA, MUFA, fiber, and cholesterol, BMI (continuous)