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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentrations of the study participants (n = 8800)

From: Associations of serum calcium levels and dietary calcium intake with incident type 2 diabetes over 10 years: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

Characteristics Valuesa Calciumb, mean (SD) p-valuec
Sex < 0.0001
 Men 4105 (47) 9.38 (0.56)  
 Women 4695 (53) 9.44 (0.48)  
Area < 0.0001
 Ansung 4358 (50) 9.44 (0.49)  
 Ansan 4442 (50) 9.38 (0.54)  
Monthly family income < 0.0001
 < $869 3000 (35) 9.48 (0.49)  
 $869–$1738 2561 (30) 9.41 (0.50)  
 $1738–$3475 2443 (28) 9.35 (0.54)  
 ≥ $3475 634 (7) 9.24 (0.56)  
Tobacco smoking < 0.0001
 Non-smoker 5160 (59) 9.42 (0.49)  
 Ex-smoker 1305 (15) 9.34 (0.56)  
 Current smoker 2216 (26) 9.40 (0.55)  
Alcohol intake < 0.0001
 Non-drinker 4036 (46) 9.43 (0.49)  
 Ex-drinker 546 (6) 9.42 (0.53)  
 Current drinker 4137 (47) 9.38 (0.54)  
Physical activity 0.0014
 None 6629 (75) 9.42 (0.52)  
 < 3 episodes/week 428 (5) 9.35 (0.53)  
 ≥ 3 episodes/week 1743 (20) 9.38 (0.51)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.0005
 < 18.5 167 (2) 9.42 (0.51)  
 18.5–25 4997 (57) 9.39 (0.52)  
 25–30 3225 (37) 9.43 (0.52)  
 ≥ 30 407 (5) 9.48 (0.49)  
Age (years) 51.8 (8.8)   < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120.1 (18.8)   < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.6 (12.1)   0.0073
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) 73.7 (13.9)   < 0.0001
HOMA-IR 1.3 (1.9)   0.0049
Insulinogenic index 0.4 (3.9)   0.0247
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 83.0 (8.8)   < 0.0001
Post-load 2-h glucose (mg/dL) 115.3 (30.9)   0.4335
HbA1c (%) 5.6 (0.4)   < 0.0001
  1. SD standard deviation, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin
  2. aValues are presented as n (%) for categorical variables, mean (standard deviation) for age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose level, post-load 2-h glucose level, and Hb1Ac or geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) for the other continuous variables
  3. bAlbumin-adjusted serum calcium concentrations (mg/dL)
  4. cp-values are estimated by one-way analysis of variance for categorical variables and bivariate linear regression analysis for continuous variables