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Table 2 Frequency of diabetic retinopathy in Brazilian Xavante Indians according to clinical data and age and sex adjusted prevalence ratios

From: Diabetic retinopathy among Brazilian Xavante Indians

  Total Diabetic Retinopathy Crude PR (95% CI) Adjusted PR (95% CI)
n %
Age (years)
 18–39 44 2 4.6 Reference Reference
 40–59 59 16 27.1 6.0 (1.4–24.6)* 6.3 (1.5–26.2)*
 60 or more 37 9 24.3 5.3 (1.2–23.2)* 5.4 (1.2–23.5)*
Sex
 Men 40 7 17.5 Reference Reference
 Women 100 20 20.0 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 1.4 (0.6–3.0)
Duration of DM
 ≤ 24 months 73 2 2.7 Reference Reference
 25–108 months 57 17 29.8 10.9 (2.6–45.2)* 2.3 (1.4–3.7)*
 > 108 months 10 8 80.0 29.2 (7.2–118.6)* 3.8 (2.0–7.0)*
Smoking
 Yes 15 1 6.7 Reference Reference
 No 125 26 20.8 3.1 (0.4–21.4) 2.6 (0.3–17.7)
Waist circumference
 Abnormal 104 17 16.4 Reference Reference
 Normal 36 10 27.8 1.7 (0.8–3.4) 3.1 (1.3–7.4)*
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 19 6 31.6 Reference Reference
 25–29.9 51 13 25.5 0.8 (0.3–1.8) 0.5 (0.2–1.4)
 ≥ 30 70 8 11.4 0.4 (0.1–0.9)* 0.3 (0.1–0.8)*
Hypertension
 No 116 24 20.7 Reference Reference
 Yes 24 3 12.5 0.6 (0.1–1.8) 0.5 (0.1–1.5)
Cataract
 No 103 16 15.5 Reference Reference
 Yes 37 11 29.7 1.9 (0.9–3.7) 1.8 (0.8–4.1)
Papillary excavation
 0.1–0.4 128 21 16.4 Reference Reference
 0.5–0.9 12 6 50.0 3.0 (1.5–6.1) 2.7 (1.3–5.4)*
Visual acuity
 0–0.5 117 21 18.0 Reference Reference
 0.6–0.9 17 4 23.5 1.3 (0.5–3.4) 1.0 (0.3–2.7)
 ≥ 1 5 2 40.0 2.2 (0.7–7.0) 1.8 (0.6–5.3)
Fasting glycemia
 < 140 mg/dL 35 0 0 Reference  
 140 mg/dL 105 27 25.7   
Total cholesterol
 < 200 mg/dL 121 25 20.7 Reference Reference
 ≥ 200 mg/dL 15 2 13.3 0.6 (0.1–2.5) 0.7 (0.2–2.8)
HDL
 Normal 24 5 20.8 Reference Reference
 Abnormal 112 22 19.6 0.9 (0.3–2.2) 0.7 (0.2–1.7)
Triglycerides
 < 150 mg/dL 32 2 6.2 Reference Reference
 ≥ 150 mg/dL 104 25 24.0 3.9 (0.9–15.3) 3.7 (0.9–14.7)
LDL
 < 100 mg/dL 101 18 17.8 Reference Reference
 ≥ 100 mg/dL 14 2 14.3 0.8 (0.2–3.1) 0.8 (0.2–3.2)
C-reactive protein
 Normal 61 14 23.0 Reference Reference
 Abnormal 75 13 17.3 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.7 (0.3–1.4)
HbA1c (%)
 < 6.5 20 0 0 Reference  
 ≥ 6.5% 104 27 26.0   
Microalbuminuria
 Normal 76 13 17.1 Reference Reference
 Abnormal 45 14 31.1 1.8 (0.9–3.5) 1.9 (1.0–3.5)
  1. *Significant at p < 0.05