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Table 1 Characteristics of 14,893 participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008–2010

From: Optimal cut-off points for waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: baseline analyses of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

Characteristics Total sample Men Women
n % n % n %
Age (years)
 35–44 3312 22.2 1543 22.8 1769 21.8
 45–54 5867 39.4 2644 39.0 3223 39.7
 55–64 4157 27.9 1816 26.8 2341 28.8
 65–74 1557 10.5 769 11.4 788 9.7
Self-declared skin colour/race category
 White 7771 52.2 3589 53.0 4182 51.5
 Brown (‘pardo’) 4197 28.2 2023 29.9 2174 26.8
 Black 2394 16.1 940 13.9 1454 17.9
 Asian 374 2.5 128 1.9 246 3.0
 Indigenous 157 1.0 92 1.3 65 0.8
Educational level
 Incomplete primary education 876 5.9 551 8.2 325 4.0
 Complete primary education 1019 6.8 570 8.4 449 5.5
 Complete high school 5179 34.8 2250 33.2 2929 36.1
 University degree 7819 52.5 3401 50.2 4418 54.4
Body mass index
 Low/normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2) 5494 36.9 2312 34.2 3182 39.2
 Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) 5995 40.3 3063 45.2 2932 36.1
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 3398 22.8 1394 20.6 2004 24.7
Metabolic syndromea
 If WC defined by JIS for ethnic Central and South Americansb 6960 46.7 3663 54.1 3297 40.6
 If WC defined by JIS for Caucasians/Europids or Sub-Saharan Africansc 6587 44.2 3290 48.6 3297 40.6
Components of metabolic syndromea
 Elevated WC
  Defined for ethnic Central and South Americansb 10,312 69.2 4518 66.7 5794 71.3
  Defined for Caucasians/Europids or Sub-Saharan Africansc 9365 62.9 3571 52.7 5794 71.3
 Elevated fasting glucosed 10,664 71.6 5525 81.6 5139 63.3
 Elevated blood pressuree 7637 51.3 4040 59.7 3597 44.3
 Elevated triglyceridesf 4705 31.6 2806 41.4 1899 23.4
Low HDL-Cg 2807 18.8 1086 16.0 1721 21.2
  1. WC waist circumference, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, JIS Joint Interim Statement [7]
  2. a Defined by the JIS criteria, using specific WC cut-offs
  3. b WC ≥ 90 cm for men; ≥ 80 cm for women
  4. c WC ≥ 94 cm for men; ≥ 80 cm for women
  5. d Fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL or drug treatment for elevated glucose
  6. e Systolic ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg, or antihypertensive drug treatment
  7. f Triglycerides ≥ 1.69 mmol/L (150 mg/dL) or drug treatment for elevated triglycerides (fibrates and nicotinic acid)
  8. g HDL-C < 1.03 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) for men and < 1.29 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) for women, or drug treatment for low HDL-C (fibrates and nicotinic acid)