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Table 2 Anthropometric nutritional status, clinics, and dietary characteristics of the individuals according to the season

From: Predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among individuals with metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study

Variables Seasons Total (n = 180) p c
Winter (n = 84) Spring (n = 50) Summer (n = 28) Autumn (n = 18)
BMI (kg/m2)a 32 ± 7 34 ± 6 35 ± 7 34 ± 8 33 ± 7 0.36
WHRa 0.97 ± 0.1 0.97 ± 0.1 0.97 ± 0.1 0.97 ± 0.1 0.97 ± 0.1 0.91
WC (cm)a 104 ± 14 107 ± 11 108 ± 14 106 ± 14 106 ± 13 0.39
Triglycerides (mg/dL)b 164 (126–217) 172 (116–235) 148 (120–188) 163 (135–218) 162 (120–221) 0.81
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)a 42 ± 9 37 ± 9 35 ± 8 45 ± 8 40 ± 9 < 0.001d
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)b 108 (94–130) 110 (96–125) 106 (95–119) 117 (105–140) 108 (96–129) 0.35
Systolic blood pressure (mm/Hg)b 130 (120–140) 132 (122–140) 128 (120–140) 130 (122–140) 130 (120–140) 0.80
Diastolic blood pressure (mm/Hg)b 84 (80–90) 89 (83–95) 87 (80–90) 90 (83–93) 87 (80–90) 0.15
25OHD (ng/mL)a 26 ± 8 29 ± 10 32 ± 10 30 ± 9 28 ± 9 0.014e
Total serum calcium (mg/dL)a 10.1 ± 0.7 9.9 ± 0.7 9.4 ± 0.5 9.8 ± 0.4 9.9 ± 0.7 < 0.001f
PTH (pg/mL)b 35 (25–51) 35 (22–48) 25 (17–34) 36 (20–41) 34 (22–47) 0.06
Vitamin D intake (IU/day)b 109 (63–150) 82 (45–141) 80 (60–124) 91 (67–158) 90 (59–146) 0.28
Calcium intake (mg/day)b 473 (315–632) 426 (254–560) 409 (245–639) 404 (297–524) 441 (294–593) 0.30
  1. BMI body mass index, WHR waist:hip ratio, WC waist circumference; PTH parathyroid hormone
  2. aData presented as average ± standard deviation)
  3. bData presented as median (interquartile interval)
  4. cp, difference among seasons. ANOVA was used to compare the variables throughout the seasons. For the variables with imputed observations, the analysis between seasons was performed using F tests (analog of ANOVA)
  5. dp, for multiple comparisons: winter vs. spring (p = 0.007), winter vs. summer (p = 0.003), spring vs. autumn (p = 0.012), and summer vs. autumn (p = 0.004)
  6. ep, for multiple comparisons: winter vs. spring (p = 0.378), winter vs. summer (p = 0.017), winter vs. autumn (p = 0.581), spring vs. summer (p > 0.99), spring vs autumn (p > 0.99), and summer vs. autumn (p > 0.99)
  7. fp, for multiple comparisons: winter vs. spring (p = 0.67), winter vs. summer (p = 0.001), winter vs. autumn (p = 0.16), spring vs. summer (p = 0.012), spring vs. autumn (p > 0.99), and summer vs. autumn (p = 0.73)