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Table 1 Demographic, biological, and environmental characteristics of the individuals according to season

From: Predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among individuals with metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study

Variables Seasons Total (n = 180) p c
Winter (n = 84) Spring (n = 50) Summer (n = 28) Autumn (n = 18)
Gendera 0.87
 Female 66 (79) 39 (78) 23 (82) 13 (72) 141 (78)
 Male 18 (22) 11 (22) 5 (18) 5 (28) 39 (22)
Age (years)b 51 ± 13 49 ± 10 47 ± 13 54 ± 14 50 ± 12 0.22
Number of MetS componentsa 0.33d
 3 components 43 (51) 21 (42) 10 (36) 6 (33) 80 (44)
 4 components 29 (35) 16 (32) 13 (46) 6 (33) 64 (36)
 5 components 12 (14) 13 (26) 5 (18) 6 (33) 36 (20)
Self-referred skin colora 0.59
 Black 6 (7) 4 (8) 10 (6)
 Mixed 51 (61) 26 (52) 17 (61) 15 (83) 109 (61)
 White 22 (26) 18 (36) 10 (36) 2 (11) 52 (29)
 Yellow 3 (5) 2 (4) 1 (4) 1 (6) 7 (3)
 Indigenous 1 (1) 1 (1)
Sunscreena 0.25
 Do not use 51 (61) 37 (74) 17 (61) 14 (78) 120 (67)
 Always use 33 (39) 12 (24) 11 (39) 4 (22) 60 (33)
Skin typea,e 0.29
 I 7 (8) 5 (10) 2 (7) 14 (8)
 II 30 (36) 13 (26) 10 (36) 4 (22) 57 (32)
 III 20 (24) 12 (24) 6 (21) 4 (22) 42 (23)
 IV 17 (20) 15 (30) 5 (18) 3 (17) 40 (22)
 V 10 (12) 5 (10) 5 (18) 7 (39) 27 (15)
 UVIb,f 5.5 ± 1.4 7.9 ± 2.2 6.8 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.4 6.4 ± 1.8 < 0.001
  1. a Data presented as n(%)
  2. bData presented as average ± standard deviation
  3. cp, differences between seasons. T-tests were used for independent samples, followed by the correction of Bonferroni and Fisher’s exact test and its extensions were used to test the differences between proportions
  4. dChi square test was used to compare the proportions of the number of components between stations
  5. eSkin type according to Fitzpratrick21
  6. fUVI, Ultraviolet radiation index of the 30 days previous to the biochemical exam