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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls

From: Adipose tissue-derived cytokines and their correlations with clinical characteristics in Vietnamese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Characteristics Type 2 diabetes mellitus Without type 2 diabetes mellitus P value (*)
Overweight T2DM (n = 50) Non-overweight T2DM (n = 88) P value Overweight individuals (n = 29) Non-overweight individuals (n = 100) P value
Demographics
 Age (years) 58 [40–84] 59 [40–69] NS 59 [35–80] 57 [37–70] NS NS
 Gender (M/F) 29/21 50/38 NS 13/16 30/70 NS 0.0001
 Smoking (yes/no) 5/45 14/74 NS 2/27 4/96 NS 0.011
 Alcohol usage (yes/no) 15/35 26/62 NS 6/23 6/94 0.027 < 0.0001
 Physical exercise (yes/no) 35/15 73/15 NS 16/13 82/18 0.006 NS
 Family history of T2DM (yes/no) 3/47 11/77 NS 2/27 1/99 NS 0.009
Anthropometrics
 WHR 0.94 [0.86–1.07] 0.92 [0.83–1.18] < 0.0001 0.93 [0.82–1.1] 0.88 [0.72–1.3] 0.001 < 0.0001
 BMI 26.7 [25–36.3] 22.4 [17.7–24.9] < 0.0001 26.2 [25.1–29.6] 22.3 [16–24.9] < 0.0001 0.008
Biochemical and clinical characteristics
 GOT (AST) (U/l) 22 [10–60] 19 [10–65] 0.025 27 [19–46] 24 [4–105] 0.043 0.006
 GPT (ALT) (U/l) 28 [11–109] 19.5 [8–86] 0.001 29 [19–68] 21 [7–177] 0.001 NS
 Total bilirubin (µmol/l) 9.4 [4.3–21.2] 7.5 [3.4–21.6] 0.047 9.4 [4.4–18.7] 9.8 [2.7–30] NS 0.001
 Blood urea (mmol/l) 5.2 [3.2–9] 5.4 [2.1–11.8] NS 5.5 [3.6–8.7] 5.65 [2.7–9.2] NS NS
 Blood creatinine (µmol/l) 69.5 [38–123] 68 [38–121] NS 67 [48–128] 64 [45–96] NS 0.015
 Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 8.6 [7–28.9] 7.65 [7–21.6] 0.002 5.3 [4.3–5.6] 5.3 [4–5.6] NA < 0.0001
 Urine glucose (pos/neg) 10/40 12/76 NS 0/29 6/94 NA 0.0026
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.5 [0.4–9.1] 1.8 [0.34–19.6] 0.014 1.97 [0.5–6.0] 1.43 [0.3–16.8] NS 0.023
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.0 [2.9–9.2] 5.0 [3.8–8.5] NS 4.6 [3.3–7.3] 5.2 [3.0–7.8] 0.012 NS
 HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.1 [0.6–1.85] 1.2 [0.7–4.6] 0.042 1.26 [0.9–2.1] 1.35 [0.7–2.7] 0.019 0.002
 LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.7 [0.8–4.1] 3.0 [1.0–4.5] NS 2.7 [0.8–4.8] 3.0 [1.1–5.9] 0.037 NS
 Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (%) 7 [5.4–14.4] 6.8 [5.2–10.9] NS 5.9 [4–6.4] 5.6 [4.2–8.5] 0.004 < 0.0001
 Insulin (mIU/l) 8.96 [2.7–54.5] 6.5 [1.3–23.2] 0.002 7.8 [3.5–10.2] 6.4 [0.08–17.5] NS 0.004
 HOMA-IR 3.6 [1.3–48.9] 2.3 [0.4–9.7] < 0.0001 1.8 [0.8–2.5] 1.5 [0.01–4.2] NS < 0.0001
 QUICKI 0.8 [0.5–0.9] 0.86 [0.7–1.07] < 0.0001 0.9 [0.8–1.4] 0.9 [0.7–1.6] NS <  0.0001
 HOMA-β 33.6 [3.5–279.2] 27.4 [4.6–111.5] NS 89.9 [38.5–222.1] 74.1 [3.0–370.8] NS < 0.0001
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, GOT Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (AST), GPT Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (ALT), HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HOMA-IR Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance, QUICKI Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, HOMA-β homeostatic model assessment-β-cell function, NA not applicable
  2. Values given are medians and range
  3. (*) Comparison between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and control individuals. P values were calculated by Chi square, Fisher’s exact tests or multi-factor ANOVA, where appropriate