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Table 4 The relative risk of being an ex-smoker, or hookah and cigarette smoking associated with biochemical measurements, CBC parameters and different metabolic disorders; the reference group is non-smokers

From: Hookah smoking is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a population-based study

Groups Reference group and ex-smoker Reference group and cigarette Reference group and hookah Reference group and cigarette and hookah
FBG 1.003 (1.001–1.005)*** 0.999 (0.995–1.002) 0.999 (0.995–1.002) 1.005 (0.996–1.014)
Cholesterol 1 (0.998–1.003) 1.002 (0.999–1.005) 1.005 (0.989–1.010) 0.997 (0.985–1.009)
Uric acid 0.939 (0.998–1.015) 0.921 (0.823–1.007) 0.898 (0.823–0.979)*** 1.114 (1.1–1.307)*
Hs-CRP 1.007 (0.998–1.016) 1.005 (0.994–1.016) 1.041 (0.991–1.067) 1.019 (0.991–1.048)
HDL 0.998 (0.986–1.009) 0.978 (0.965–0.991)*** 0.923 (0.865–1.007) 1.001 (0.995–1.049)
GFR 1.013 (0.655–1.567) 0.78 (0.51–1.19) 1.21 (0.627–2.35) 1.064 (0.139–8.15)
WBC 1.145 (1.069–1.225)*** 1.509 (1.406–1.629)*** 1.34 (0.906–1.242) 1.140 (0.849–1.513)
RBC 1.079 (0.425–2.733) 0.642 (0.298–1.386) 0.865 (0.453–1.34) 2.854 (0.27–30.151)
HGB 0.993 (0.709–1.391) 1.235 (0.960–1.589) 1.15 (0.934–1.789) 0.873 (0.357–2.135)
HCT 1.005 (0.988–1.022) 1.005 (0.972–1.039) 1.015 (0.989–1.139) 1.010 (0.93–1.097)
MCV 1.051 (1–1.103)* 1.077 (1.009–1.148)* 1.047 (0.109–1.248) 1.380 (1.126–1.692)**
MCH 0.918 (0.765–1.101) 0.845 (0.714–1) 0.945 (0.814–1.32) 0.636 (0.395–1.024)
PLT 1 (0.999–1.002) 0.996 (0.994–0.998)** 0.996 (0.785–1.098)* 1.002 (0.995–1.010)
RDW 1.008 (0.969–1.048) 1.089 (1.043–1.138)*** 1.103 (1.003–1.148)* 0.923 (0.777–1.096)
CVD 1.605 (1.335–1.931)*** 1.42 (1.13–1.79)** 1.022 (0.838–1.24) 0.991 (0.347–2.83)
Obesitya
 Obese 1.021 (0.847–1.23) 0.474 (0.377–0.597)*** 1.31 (1.096–1.572)** 1.018 (0.38–2.72)
 Over weight 0.937 (0.794–1.105) 0.57 (0.483–0.673)*** 1.096 (0.918–1.307) 1.61 (0.76–3.41)
Metabolic syndrome 1.17 (1.013–1.35)* 0.82 (0.69–0.97)* 1.29 (1.12–1.48)*** 1.134 (0.58–2.19)
Diabetes 0.79 (0.65–0.95)* 1.14 (1.12–1.88)** 0.75 (0.63–0.9)** 0.71 (0.56–1.42)
Dyslipidemia 0.93 (0.8–1.08) 0.87 (0.73–1.03) 0.82 (0.71–0.94)** 0.57 (0.26–1.25)
  1. Adjusted odds ratios with age and sex, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) obtained from multiple logistic regression tests. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. aReference is normal BMI