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Table 3 Association between smoking status and CVD, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and dyslipidemia (adjusted for age and sex)

From: Hookah smoking is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a population-based study

Groups No smoker (n: 6742) Ex-smoker (n: 976) Cigarette smoking (n: 864) Hookah smoking (n: 1067) Cigarette and hookah (n: 41) p value
CVD n (%)
 Yes 819 (12.3%) 184 (19.0%) 115 (13.6%) 136 (12.9%) 4 (10.0%) < 0.001
 No 5847 (87.7%) 782 (81.0%) 733 (86.4%) 921 (87.1%) 36 (90.0%)
Obesity n (%)
 Normal weight 1714 (25.5%) 285 (29.2%) 414 (48.0%) 216 (20.3%) 10 (25.0%) < 0.001
 Over weight 2904 (43.1%) 423 (43.4%) 331 (38.4%) 424 (39.9%) 23 (57.5%)
 Obese 2111 (31.4%) 267 (27.4%) 117 (13.6%) 423 (39.8%) 7 (17.5%)
Metabolic syndrome n (%)
 Yes 2611 (38.8%) 398 (40.8%) 227 (26.2%) 497 (46.8%) 14 (34.1%) < 0.001
 No 4113 (61.2%) 577 (59.2%) 637 (73.7%) 566 (53.2%) 27 (65.9%)
Diabetes n (%)
 Yes 925 (14.0%) 180 (18.9%) 82 (9.8%) 180 (17.1%) 6 (16.2%) < 0.001
 No 5693 (86.0%) 772 (81.1%) 755 (90.2%) 875 (82.9%) 31 (83.8%)
Dyslipidemia n (%)
 Yes 4394 (65.5%) 691 (70.9%) 640 (75.1%) 709 (67.1%) 33 (80.5%) < 0.001
 No 2312 (34.5%) 278 (29.1%) 212 (24.9%) 348 (32.9%) 8 (19.5%)