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Table 2 Association between smoking status and CBC parameters (adjusted for age and sex)

From: Hookah smoking is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a population-based study

Groups No smoker (n: 6742) Ex-smoker (n: 976) Cigarette smoking (n: 864) Hookah smoking (n: 1067) Cigarette and hookah (n: 41) p value
WBC (×103/µl) 5.95 ± 1.46 6.16 ± 1.58a 6.97 ± 1.98ab 6.05 ± 1.51ac 6.58 ± 1.86ad < 0.001
RBC (×106/µl) 4.82 ± 0.47 4.95 ± 0.57 5.04 ± 0.49ab 4.8 ± 0.47abc 4.93 ± 0.84d < 0.001
Hb (mg/dl) 13.57 ± 1.53 14.14 ± 1.46a 14.76 ± 3.01a 13.42 ± 1.61b 14.16 ± 2.22 < 0.001
HCT (%) 40.81 ± 5.32 42.37 ± 4.56 43.79 ± 3.67a 40.52 ± 3.99a 42.41 ± 7.14 0.001
MCV (fl) 84.61 ± 6.09 85.49 ± 5.78a 86.96 ± 5.64ab 84.47 ± 5.95bc 86.19 ± 3.78 < 0.001
MCH (pg) 28.24 ± 2.73 28.6 ± 2.23 29.16 ± 2.24ab 27.98 ± 2.68c 28.67 ± 1.74 < 0.001
MCHC (g/dl) 33.23 ± 1.65 33.3 ± 1.43 33.49 ± 1.25 33.07 ± 1.57 33.32 ± 1.11 0.065
PLT (×103/µl) 231.43 ± 60.29 227.37 ± 53.12a 210.85 ± 51.48b 238.55 ± 68.78c 236.31 ± 67.15c 0.004
RDW (%) 41.42 ± 3.18 41.92 ± 3.11a 42.83 ± 3.14ab 41.9 ± 3.33ac 42 ± 2.56 < 0.001
  1. Values expressed in mean ± SD
  2. αNo-smoker vs ex-smoker, cigarette, hookah
  3. bEx-smoker vs cigarette, hookah
  4. cCigarette vs hookah