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Table 1 Association between smoking status and biochemical measurements (adjusted for age and sex)

From: Hookah smoking is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a population-based study

Groups No smoker (n: 6742) Ex-smoker (n: 976) Cigarette smoking (n: 864) Hookah smoking (n: 1067) Cigarette and hookah (n: 41) p value
FBG1 (mg/dl) 92.65 ± 38.71 96.78 ± 43.26 87.59 ± 33.86ab 93.60 ± 42.43c 94.85 ± 47.02 0.013
TG2 (mg/dl) 117 (83–170) 128 (90.5–177.5) 122 (86–180) 121 (88–171) 122 (96–186) 0.125
Cholesterol1 (mg/dl) 192.41 ± 39.36 191.10 ± 38.76 184.18 ± 39.4a 190.53 ± 37.6a 189.27 ± 37.25 0.045
LDL1 (mg/dl) 116.77 ± 35.53 117.18 ± 35.45 112.42 ± 34.93 117.48 ± 33.63 109.03 ± 35.39 0.9
HDL1 (mg/dl) 43.63 ± 10 41.96 ± 10.18 38.77 ± 9.22ab 42.53 ± 9.04ab 41.11 ± 9.65 < 0.001
Uric acid1 (mg/dl) 4.62 ± 1.4 4.91 ± 1.45 5 ± 1.34ab 4.36 ± 1.32c 5.37 ± 1.6c < 0.001
Serum urea1 (mg/dl) 12.93 ± 4.28 13.54 ± 4.2 13.48 ± 4.22 12.52 ± 4.05 13.8 ± 5.57 0.63
Cr1 (mg/dl) 0.85 ± 0.25 0.90 ± 0.24 0.93 ± 0.25 0.84 ± 0.27 0.93 ± 0.21 0.65
GFR3 ml/min
 < 60 119 (2.7%) 28 (4.4%) 33 (5.7%) 10 (1.5%) 1 (3.3%) < 0.001
 > 60 4364 (97.3%) 605 (95.6%) 546 (94.3%) 646 (98.5%) 29 (96.7%)
hsCRP2 (mg/l) 1.62 (0.98–3.51) 1.55 (1–3.35) 1.71 (1.06–3.89) 1.63 (1.04–3.46) 2.02 (1.1–4.65) < 0.001
  1. aNo-smoker vs ex-smoker, cigarette, hookah
  2. bEx-smoker vs cigarette, hookah
  3. cCigarette vs hookah
  4. 1Mean ± SD
  5. 2Median (min–max)
  6. 3Number (%)