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Table 4 EQ-VAS, fixed and random part results of selected models, intervention- and control group at follow up (multilevel modeling)

From: The impact of a disease management programme for type 2 diabetes on health-related quality of life: multilevel analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

  3-level null model 2-level null model Baseline-adjusted model Socio-economic model Baseline and full guideline adherence treatment model Final model
Fixed part a,b
Constant 72.52 (0.89)* 72.65 (0.74)* 35.67 (1.89)* 40.95 (4.29)* 48.17 (5.98)* 48.22 (6.01)*
Patient characteristics
Sex (female/male)     − 2.23 (0.96)° − 2.29 (0.99)° − 2.30 (0.99)°
Age (mean years ± SD)     − 0.13 (0.06)° − 0.12 (0.06)° − 0.12 (0.06)°
Austrian (yes/no)     − 2.19 (2.08) − 2.78 (2.10) − 2.68 (2.10)
Living alone (yes/no)     2.36 (1.15)° 2.48 (1.17)° 2.36 (1.17)°
Higher education (school leaving examination or higher)     0.41 (1.66) − 0.27 (1.69) − 0.39 (1.70)
Working fulltime (yes/no)     2.82 (1.58) 3.51 (1.62)° 3.44 (1.62)°
Smoker (yes/no)     0.78 (1.39) 1.34 (1.42) 1.20 (1.42)
Any macrovascular diabetic complicationc      2.25 (1.09)° 2.23 (1.09)°
Duration of diabetes (year)      − 0.23 (0.07)* − 0.22 (0.07)*
Baseline values
EQ-VAS    0.52 (0.03)* 0.50 (0.03)* 0.48 (0.03)* 0.48 (0.03)*
Body mass index (kg/cm2)      − 0.25 (0.10)° − 0.25 (0.10)°
DMP associated variables
Group assignment (Intervention or control group)     0.61 (1.27) 1.14 (1.35) 1.17 (1.36)
Full guideline adherence treatmentd      0.90 (1.12) 1.03 (1.13)
District type
Rural       1.46 (1.47)
Urban       − 1.04 (1.67)
Random Part b
District-level (“rural”, “urban” or “mixed”) 1.56 (3.40)      
GP-level (intervention or control group) 15.73 (6.42) 17.36 (6.10) 11.99 (4.25) 12.10 (4.37) 11.72 (4.44) 10.51 (4.27)
Patient characteristics-level (sex, age, nationality, education, occupational, family and smoking status, study length) 307.22 (13.12) 307.12 (13.12) 224.12 (9.64) 221.40 (9.69) 218.29 (9.78) 218.47 (9.79)
Intraclass correlation coefficient, district level 0.0048      
Intraclass correlation coefficient, GP level 0.0485 0.0535 0.0508 0.0518 0.0509 0.0459
− 2 Log-Likelihood 9962.12 9962.42 9438.57 9127.70 8706.66 8704.46
Number of districts 6      
Number of GPs 79 79 79 79 74 74
Number of patients 1139 1139 1139 1103 1054 1054
  1. aFor the fixed part results ° and * represent significant results at the 5 and 1% level, respectively
  2. bStandard errors are in parenthesis
  3. cMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass and/or stroke and/or carotid surgery and/or amputation/gangrene and/or peripheral artery bypass or PTA
  4. dA full guideline adherence treatment covered four aspects: patient education; diagnostic measures (i.e. regular HbA1c-checks); ophthalmological and foot examinations
Interpretation based on the socio-economic model
 Model Interpretation
 Socio-economic model The following baseline variables have a significantly negative impact on the final EQ-VAS: low baseline EQ-VAS score, female sex, higher age, and living alone. In the socio-economic model the baseline EQ-VAS variable was positively (0.50) and the age variable negatively associated (− 0.13). These numbers should be interpreted as follows: a high EQ-VAS score at baseline and younger age impacts positively on final EQ-VAS The variable sex was negatively (− 2.23) associated. This means that the final EQ-VAS score is lower in woman compared to men. Participants living with a partner (variable living alone, positively associated [2.36]) have a higher final EQ-VAS score compared to those living alone
  1. aFor the fixed part results ° and * represent significant results at the 5 and 1% level, respectively
  2. bStandard errors are in parenthesis
  3. cMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass and/or stroke and/or carotid surgery and/or amputation/gangrene and/or peripheral artery bypass or PTA
  4. dA full guideline adherence treatment covered four aspects: patient education; diagnostic measures (i.e. regular HbA1c-checks); ophthalmological and foot examinations