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Table 1 Baseline characteristics disaggregated by sex (per protocol analysis population)

From: The impact of a disease management programme for type 2 diabetes on health-related quality of life: multilevel analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

  Number of participants Total Female Male  
Total/ female Proportion in  % Proportion in  % Proportion in  % p-valuea
Intervention group (%) 1139/543 45.0 45.9 44.1 0.592
Austrian (%) 1136/540 94.5 95.6 93.6 0.191
Living alone (%) 1116/532 22.0 30.6 14.0 < 0.001
Higher education (school leaving examination or higher) (%) 1128/538 8.5 5.4 11.4 < 0.001
Working fulltime (%) 1136/541 14.0 7.0 20.3 < 0.001
Smoker (%) 1139/543 13.8 10.3 16.9 0.001
Any manifestation of coronary heart disease (%)c 1139/543 14.7 10.1 18.8 < 0.001
Any macrovasculardiabetic complication (%)d 1139/543 24.1 19.5 28.2 0.001
  1. aFisher’s exact test or Chi Square-Test, respectively
  2. bIndependent T Test or Mann–Whitney-Test, respectively
  3. cMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass
  4. dMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass and/or stroke and/or carotid surgery and/or amputation/gangrene and/or peripheral artery bypass or PTA
  Total/ female Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-valueb
Age (mean years ± SD) 1139/543 65.42 ± 10.28 66.89 ± 10.56 64.07 ± 9.84 < 0.001
Duration of diabetes (mean years ± SD) 1089/519 7.13 ± 6.76 7.34 ± 7.08 6.95 ± 6.46 0.349
HbA1c (% ± SD) 1139/543 7.37 ± 1.38 7.39 ± 1.31 7.35 ± 1.44 0.614
Creatinine (µmol/l ± SD) 1138/542 0.96 ± 0.36 0.87 ± 0.31 1.04 ± 0.39 < 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l ± SD) 1139/543 181.40 ± 155.71 168.66 ± 117.97 193.00 ± 182.78 0.143
Cholesterol (mmol/l ± SD) 1139/543 195.75 ± 42.95 204.02 ± 43.62 188.21 ± 40.83 < 0.001
HDL (mmol/l ± SD) 1137/542 51.25 ± 14.35 55.71 ± 14.62 47.18 ± 12.83 < 0.001
LDL (mmol/l ± SD) 1091/530 110.03 ± 35.75 115.45 ± 37.34 104.91 ± 33.42 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg ± SD) 1139/543 139.41 ± 17.78 140.34 ± 18.16 138.56 ± 17.39 0.092
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg ± SD) 1139/543 82.22 ± 10.61 82.10 ± 10.87 82.34 ± 10.39 0.700
BMI (kg/m2) 1139/543 29.99 ± 4.91 30.20 ± 5.30 29.81 ± 4.52 0.301
EQ-VAS 1139/543 71.10 ± 18.01 69.24 ± 18.81 72.80 ± 17.09 0.002
EQ-index 1098/519 0.88 ± 0.17 0.86 ± 0.19 0.90 ± 0.16 < 0.001
  1. aFisher’s exact test or Chi Square-Test, respectively
  2. bIndependent T Test or Mann–Whitney-Test, respectively
  3. cMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass
  4. dMyocardial infarction and/or PTCA/stenting and/or coronary bypass and/or stroke and/or carotid surgery and/or amputation/gangrene and/or peripheral artery bypass or PTA