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Table 1 Summary of included studies

From: The effects of exercise on vascular endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Age Number of subjects BMI (kg/m2) Baseline FMD (%) Intervention
EXP CON EXP CON EXP CON EXP CON EXP
Gainey et al. [43] 58 ± 10.4 63 ± 6.6 2/10 2/9 27.1 ± 4.8 26.6 ± 4.6 5.6 ± 4.2 3.9 ± 3.0 AE with walking meditation, 12 weeks, 3/week, 50 m, 50–70% HRmax
Gibbs et al. [47] 58 ± 5 56 ± 6 32/17 37/26 32.3 ± 5.3 33.5 ± 4.3 6.0 ± 4.0 6.2 ± 4.3 Combined AE and RE, 26 weeks, 3/week, > 60 m, 60–90% HRmax, 50% 1RM, 7 × 2 × 12–15
Kwon et al. [44] AE:55.5 ± 8.6
RE:56.3 ± 6.1
58.9 ± 5.7 0/13 0/12 0/15 26.7 ± 2.6
27.4 ± 2.1
27.0 ± 2.3 4.3 ± 1.6
4.9 ± 2.5
4.7 ± 1.9 AE vs RE, 12 weeks, AE: 5/week, RE: 3/week, 60 m, AE: 3.6–6.0 METs, RE: 40–50% 1RM, 10 × 3 × Not specified
Mitranun et al. [48] CONT: 61.7 ± 10.1
INT:61.2 ± 10.5
60.9 ± 9.3 5/9 5/9 5/10 29.4 ± 2.6
29.6 ± 1.9
29.7 ± 1.5 4.8 ± 6.0
5.4 ± 4.1
5.1 ± 5.0 CONT vs INT AE, 12 weeks, 3/week, 30–40 m, CONT: 60–65% VO2peak, INT: 80–85% (1 m) and 50–60% VO2peak (4 m)
Okada et al. [45] 61.9 ± 8.6 64.5 ± 5.9 10/11 11/6 25.7 ± 3.2 24.5 ± 2.9 7.3 ± 4.7 6.4 ± 3.6 Combined AE and RE, 12 weeks, 3–5/week, 65 m, AE: 60% HRmax, RE: N/A
Schreuder et al. [41] 57 ± 6 52 ± 8 9/1 5/4 30.9 ± 4.1 36.0 ± 6.5 3.6 ± 2.0 4.7 ± 0.6 Combined AE and RE, 8 weeks, 3/week, > 60 m, 70–75% HRR, RE: N/A, in hypoxia (16.5% O2)
Schreuder et al. [42] 60 ± 5 59 ± 6 8/0 10/0 32.8 ± 8.3 31.9 ± 4.6 4.3 ± 1.2 3.6 ± 2.3 Combined AE and RE (Circuit), 8 weeks, 3/week, 60 m, 70–75% HRR, 12RM, 6 × 3 × 12, ET receptor blockade
Schreuder et al. [46] 59 ± 6 58 ± 7 13/0 10/0 32.4 ± 4.2 26.9 ± 3.5 3.4 ± 2.1 3.9 ± 1.9 Combined AE and RE (Circuit), 8 weeks, 3/week, 60 m, 70–75% HRR, 12RM, 6 × 3 × 12
  1. Values are mean ± SD
  2. EXP experimental group, CON control group, BMI body mass index, FMD flow-mediated dilation, AE aerobic exercise, RE resistance exercise, CONT continuous training, INT interval training, wk week, a/wk days per week, m minutes, HRmax maximum heart rate, 1RM one-repetition maximum, METs metabolic equivalents, VO2peak peak oxygen consumption, HRR hear rate reserve, A × B × C number of exercise × sets × repetitions, ET endothelin