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Table 1 Summary of the effects of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism

From: Review article: effects of type 2 diabetes therapies on bone metabolism

  Bone markers Bone mineral density Risk of fractures
Resorption Formation (BMD) (RF)
Metformin ↑ [22] ↓ [22] ↔ [90] ↔ [21]
Thiazolidinediones ↑ [22] ↓ [22] ↓ [22, 26] ↑↑ [21]
Sulfonylureas ↔ [22] ↓ [22] ↔ [21, 39] Conflicting results [21, 39]
GLP-1 RA ↓ [48] ↑ [45] NA NA
iDPP-4 ↔ [67] NA ↔[40] ↔ [58, 69]↓ [68]
iSGLT2 ↑ [76] ↑ [76] ↓[73]a ↔ [77, 83] ↑ [72, 79]a ↔ [77, 78, 83]
Insulin NA NA ↑ [89, 91]
  1. increases, decreases, neutral effect, NA data not available or insufficient evidence, BMD bone mineral density, RF risk of fractures
  2. aResults for canagliflozin only