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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the participants according to ISIMatsuda quartiles

From: The relationship between insulin sensitivity and heart rate-corrected QT interval in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variables Total Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend
ISIMatsuda 99.4 (65.9–151.8) 48.2 (36.9–57.9) 82.0 (73.6–89.8) 120.7 (109.5–135.4) 214.8 (175.0–289.8) <0.001
log ISIMatsuda 4.61 ± 0.67 3.78 ± 0.36 4.40 ± 0.12 4.80 ± 0.16 5.46 ± 0.37 <0.001
n 2927 733 727 730 737
Age (years) 56 ± 14 57 ± 14 56 ± 14 56 ± 13 55 ± 13 0.280
Female, n (%) 1394 (47.6) 428 (58.4) 368 (50.6) 298 (40.8) 300 (40.7) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 3.9 26.3 ± 4.1 25.5 ± 3.9 24.5 ± 3.6 23.6 ± 3.3 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 135 ± 17 137 ± 17 136 ± 18 134 ± 17 132 ± 18 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 80 ± 11 80 ± 10 80 ± 11 80 ± 10 79 ± 11 0.073
Diabetic duration (years) 3.0 (0.3–9.0) 4.0 (0.3–10.0) 3.0 (0.3–10.0) 3.0 (0.3–8.0) 3.0 (0.3–9.0) 0.209
Antidiabetic treatment
 Lifestyle intervention alone, n (%) 313 (10.7) 69 (9.4) 71 (9.8) 79 (10.8) 94 (12.8) 0.067
 Insulin treatments, n (%) 871 (29.8) 259 (35.3) 217 (29.8) 198 (27.1) 197 (26.7) 0.031
 Insulin-secretagogues, n (%) 1168 (39.9) 255 (34.8) 304 (41.8) 328 (44.9) 281 (38.1) 0.106
 Insulin-sensitisers, n (%) 1873 (64.0) 455 (62.1) 470 (64.6) 491 (67.3) 457 (62.0) 0.765
Hypertension, n (%) 1089 (37.2) 338 (46.1) 306 (42.1) 252 (34.5) 193 (26.2) <0.001
Statins medication, n (%) 1079 (36.9) 303 (41.3) 296 (40.7) 264 (36.2) 216 (29.3) <0.001
Smoking, n (%) 892 (30.5) 231 (31.5) 232 (31.9) 215 (29.5) 215 (29.0) 0.193
Drinking, n (%) 476 (16.3) 159 (21.7) 131 (18.0) 119 (16.3) 67 (9.1) <0.001
CHD, n (%) 262 (9.0) 82 (11.2) 74 (10.2) 49 (6.7) 57 (7.7) 0.008
TG (mmol/L) 1.61 (1.02–2.59) 2.06 (1.33–3.20) 1.76 (1.15–2.74) 1.56 (1.00–2.47) 1.15 (0.77–1.86) <0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.73 ± 1.25 4.82 ± 1.43 4.81 ± 1.21 4.75 ± 1.19 4.53 ± 1.14 <0.001
HDLC (mmol/L) 1.07 ± 0.29 1.03 ± 0.26 1.06 ± 0.26 1.07 ± 0.30 1.13 ± 0.31 <0.001
LDLC (mmol/L) 2.51 ± 0.82 2.55 ± 0.81 2.54 ± 0.85 2.48 ± 0.81 2.45 ± 0.80 0.021
Serum UA (μmol/L) 286 ± 105 305 ± 104 285 ± 101 285 ± 102 270 ± 108 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 8.29 ± 1.23 8.51 ± 1.32 8.36 ± 1.22 8.23 ± 1.18 8.08 ± 1.14 <0.001
QTc (ms) 419 ± 32 432 ± 33 423 ± 29 414 ± 31 408 ± 31 <0.001
Prolonged QTc, n (%) 684 (23.4) 278 (37.9) 186 (25.6) 131 (17.9) 89 (12.1) <0.001
  1. Normally distributed values in the table are given as the mean ± SD, non-normally distributed values are given as the median (25 and 75% interquartiles), and categorical variables are given as frequency (percentage)
  2. ISI Matsuda insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda, QTc heart rate-corrected QT, BMI body mass index, SBP/DBP systolic/diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDLC high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC low density lipoprotein cholesterol, Serum UA serum uric acid, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, CHD coronary heart disease
  3. p values for continuous variables and categorical variables were determined by ANOVA and the Chi squared test, respectively