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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants at baseline and exercise volume of the study participants during the study period

From: Association between aerobic capacity and the improvement in glycemic control after the exercise training in type 2 diabetes

Characteristics Inactive group (n = 30) Active group (n = 23) P value
Age (years) 51.9 ± 10.1 57.6 ± 7.8 0.031
Duration of diabetes (years) 6.1 ± 4.5 7.7 ± 6.3 0.298
Smoking status (never/past/current) 6/14/10 6/11/6 0.081
Diabetes treatment
 Sulphonylureas 10 9 0.575
 α glucosidase inhibitors 9 7 0.888
 Biguanides 6 1 0.107
 Thiazolidines 2 0 0.217
 Glinides 2 0 0.217
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.9 ± 4.4 23.7 ± 3.5 0.185
Total body fat (%) 25.5 ± 7.6 21.9 ± 6.2 0.342
Lean body mass (kg) 52.7 ± 6.0 50.0 ± 6.4 0.250
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 139.2 ± 16.9 140.2 ± 21.2 0.942
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 85.6 ± 9.5 84.1 ± 11.3 0.707
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.31 ± 0.85 5.32 ± 0.97 0.509
Triglyceridea (mmol/l) 1.51 (1.04–2.32) 1.46 (0.88–1.90) 0.958
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.23 ± 0.25 1.46 ± 0.33 0.022
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.3 7.5 ± 1.0 0.700
Glycated albumin (%) 21.7 ± 4.8 23.5 ± 4.0 0.256
Peak \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{ 2}\) (ml/min/kg) 25.6 ± 5.2 27.0 ± 4.1 0.057
Peak \({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{ 2}\) (%pred) (%) 97.3 ± 18.9 106.9 ± 15.1 0.052
FVC (%pred) (%) 110.5 ± 13.4 106.0 ± 12.8 0.366
FEV1 (%pred) (%) 105.3 ± 13.2 107.8 ± 14.3 0.766
FEV1/FVC (%) 78.8 ± 4.9 78.9 ± 4.2 0.369
Number of steps (/day) 6477 ± 2586 11,690 ± 4842 <0.001
Number of exercise bouts (/week) 0.9 ± 0.8 8.8 ± 6.6 <0.001
  1. Results were expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. Values were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with age as the covariate
  3. aAnalyses performed on the natural logarithm