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Table 3 Categories of family interactions when living with diabetes

From: Supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient: an integrative review



Impact of practical actions

Family assistance with grocery shopping, cooking, sharing and learning about diet plan [41,42,43]

Adherence to dietary guidelines, timing the meals according to insulin, preparing meals at home, assisting with medications, assisting with checking blood sugar level [41, 42]

Spouse and patient buy or prepare non-healthy food, feel obliged to eat unhealthy food prepared by either the patient or spouse [41, 42]

Impact of emotional involvement

Thinking of the others’ needs and concerns [41]

Being cooperative [41]

Making the other feel like a person [41]

Positive attitude toward diabetes [41, 43]

Acknowledge need for independence [41]

Being calm [41]

Acknowledge need for privacy [42]

Take responsibility [44]

Acknowledge responsibility for shared management [45]

Have a shared construction of meaning [44]

Be partners and work together [44]

Partner refusing to share burden with spouse, expecting patient to manage tasks alone rather than together, refusing to accept requirements and consequences of diabetes, focusing solely on problems [41, 43]

Being scared and nervous [41]

Prefer to remain uninvolved [44]

Perceive diabetes as unpredictable and burdensome [45]

Impact of communication content

Acting as a sounding board, talking nicely, reminding to check blood glucose, take medication, bring snacks, taking time to listen [41]

Console, encourage, be there, reminding [42]

Partners recognise the need of help in crisis situation [41]

Asking how the other feels [43]

Nagging, criticising, constant controlling reminders, poor communication [41, 42]

Being silent, ignoring the other, not communicating about difficulties, conflicts not relating to diabetes [41, 42]

Most talk is about difficulties [44]

Spouses get annoyed, aggravated and angry, difficult receiving help when hypoglycaemic-get agitated [41]

Use persuasion or challenge food choices [43]

Express irritation or doubt food choices [43]

Telling each other what to feel [41, 42]

Both preoccupied with reminders vs. nagging [41, 42]