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Table 3 Categories of family interactions when living with diabetes

From: Supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient: an integrative review

Supportive Non-supportive
Impact of practical actions
Family assistance with grocery shopping, cooking, sharing and learning about diet plan [41,42,43]
Adherence to dietary guidelines, timing the meals according to insulin, preparing meals at home, assisting with medications, assisting with checking blood sugar level [41, 42]
Spouse and patient buy or prepare non-healthy food, feel obliged to eat unhealthy food prepared by either the patient or spouse [41, 42]
Impact of emotional involvement
Thinking of the others’ needs and concerns [41]
Being cooperative [41]
Making the other feel like a person [41]
Positive attitude toward diabetes [41, 43]
Acknowledge need for independence [41]
Being calm [41]
Acknowledge need for privacy [42]
Take responsibility [44]
Acknowledge responsibility for shared management [45]
Have a shared construction of meaning [44]
Be partners and work together [44]
Partner refusing to share burden with spouse, expecting patient to manage tasks alone rather than together, refusing to accept requirements and consequences of diabetes, focusing solely on problems [41, 43]
Being scared and nervous [41]
Prefer to remain uninvolved [44]
Perceive diabetes as unpredictable and burdensome [45]
Impact of communication content
Acting as a sounding board, talking nicely, reminding to check blood glucose, take medication, bring snacks, taking time to listen [41]
Console, encourage, be there, reminding [42]
Partners recognise the need of help in crisis situation [41]
Asking how the other feels [43]
Nagging, criticising, constant controlling reminders, poor communication [41, 42]
Being silent, ignoring the other, not communicating about difficulties, conflicts not relating to diabetes [41, 42]
Most talk is about difficulties [44]
Spouses get annoyed, aggravated and angry, difficult receiving help when hypoglycaemic-get agitated [41]
Use persuasion or challenge food choices [43]
Express irritation or doubt food choices [43]
Telling each other what to feel [41, 42]
Both preoccupied with reminders vs. nagging [41, 42]