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Table 2 Summary of the included studies

From: Supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient: an integrative review

Author and title Country of origin Aim of study, design and data Sample size and characteristics Main results
Trief et al. [41]. Describing support: a qualitative study of couples living with diabetes USA To learn about support from couples who deal with diabetes daily
Grounded Theory and telephone interviews
40 patients (55% type 2 diabetes) and 32 spouses. Mean age patient and spouse 49 years Three broad topics on spousal behaviour and diabetes management: (1) being helpful, especially regarding diet, general support and reminders, (2) being non-helpful, including nagging, wrong diet, poor communication and conflicts, (3) couple interaction as teamwork, independence, emotional support
Sandberg et al. [42]. “He said, She said”: the impact of gender on spousal support in diabetes management USA To examine how gender is related to support for couples coping with diabetes
Grounded Theory and individual interviews
40 patients (55% type 2 diabetes) and 32 spouses. Mean age patient and spouse 49 years Both males and females recognised the importance of spousal support. Males used more authoritative language, females more accommodating and collaborative. Females preferred verbal support, males instrumental. Females identified own nagging, males silent
Stephens et al. [45]. Spouses’ attempt to regulate day-to-day dietary adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes USA To investigate daily dietary adherence in older adults with type 2 diabetes as a function of spouses’ diet related support and control
Quantitative study using diaries and questionnaires
126 couples where one partner had type 2 diabetes. Mean age 66 years Spousal dietary support increased patient adherence, whereas persuasion and pressure decreased adherence. Support decreased distress and pressure increased distress and decreased adherence
Houston-Barrett et al. [43]. Couple’s relationship with diabetes: means and meanings for management success USA To develop a theory about dyadic constructs and their interactions with success in diabetes management
Grounded Theory and dyadic interviews
25 couples, one with type 2 diabetes, mean age men 57 and women 55 years Relationships with diabetes: (1) transforming, (2) accepting, (3) rejecting. Couple’s relationship to diabetes determines success. Focus on emotion and meaning leads to growth, accept or rejection
Dimitraki et al. [44]. The association of type 2 diabetes patient and spouse illness representation with their well-being: a dyadic approach Greece To examine type 2 diabetes in patients and spouses in relation to physical and psychological well-being
Quantitative study using questionnaires
84 couples where one partner had type 2 diabetes. Mean age patients 65 and spouse 63 years Synergy between patient and spouse; patients had anxiety and depression when spouse perceived diabetes as unpredictable. Spouses had anxiety when patient perceived diabetes less burdensome