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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the full analysis set

From: A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of dapagliflozin and DPP-4 inhibitors on glucose variability and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin

Variables Dapagliflozin (n = 14) DPP-4 inhibitors (n = 15) p value
Age (years) 63.0 ± 7.7 60.0 ± 9.6 0.36
Female sex (n) 2 10 0.01
Duration of disease (years) 17.1 ± 7.9 14.8 ± 10.4 0.50
Hemoglobin A1c (%) 7.1 ± 0.8 7.4 ± 0.7 0.33
Body mass index (kg m−2) 26.5 ± 4.6 25.7 ± 2.5 0.61
Hemoglobin (g dL−1)a 14.1 ± 1.5 13.5 ± 1.7 0.35
Hematocrit (%)a 41.8 ± 4.5 40.7 ± 4.8 0.53
ALT (U L−1) 32 (17–45) 17 (14–22) 0.07§
Uric acid (mg dL−1) 5.6 ± 1.6 5.3 ± 1.3 0.61
Estimated GFR [mL min−1 (1.73 m2)−1] 68.8 (63.9–76.0) 73.7 (63.2–77.0) 0.76§
Diabetic nephropathy (%)a 7.1 28.6 0.33
Log UACRa 1.93 ± 0.85 1.33 ± 0.52 0.04
The total insulin dose (U) 11 (8–22) 14 (10–20) 0.54§
Insulin regimen (n)
 MDI/mix/basal 1/3/10 1/4/10 0.95
Diabetic medication (n)
 DPP-4i/Met/SU/TZD/αGI 14/10/3/1/3 15/13/3/2/1 0.80
  1. Values are presented as the mean ± SD or median (range). p value of Dapagliflozin vs. DPP-4 inhibitors groups. § Mann–Whitney U test was applied to the following factors: estimated GFR, ALT, and the total insulin dose
  2. ALT alanine-aminotransferase, LDL low-density lipoprotein, GFR glomerular filtration rate, UACR urine albumin to creatinine ratio, MDI multiple daily injection, Mix mixed insulins, Basal long-acting insulin, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, Met metformin, SU sulphonylureas/glinides, TZD thiazolidines, αGI alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
  3. aData from 28 patients