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Table 4 Clinical variables with arterial stiffness in the hypertensive patients with or without metabolic syndrome

From: Low serum adiponectin level is associated with metabolic syndrome and is an independent marker of peripheral arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients

Variables No metabolic syndrome (n = 38) Metabolic syndrome (n = 63)
Low AS group (n = 22) High AS group (n = 16) P value Low AS group (n = 7) High AS group (n = 56) P value
Age (years) 63.00 ± 8.94 70.44 ± 10.37 0.023* 67.14 ± 8.65 63.75 ± 9.30 0.363
Height (cm) 161.237 ± 5.95 163.59 ± 8.73 0.326 157.00 ± 8.72 161.16 ± 8.98 0.251
Body weight (kg) 62.36 ± 11.20 64.69 ± 10.42 0.520 67.43 ± 5.65 74.36 ± 13.23 0.178
Waist circumference (cm) 84.09 ± 11.04 85.81 ± 6.88 0.586 92.14 ± 4.18 99.32 ± 9.70 0.646
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.95 ± 3.77 24.05 ± 2.44 0.930 27.46 ± 2.67 28.45 ± 3.34 0.454
Left baPWV (m/s) 10.64 ± 2.41 15.43 ± 0.86 <0.001* 13.13 ± 0.98 17.22 ± 2.45 <0.001*
Right baPWV (m/s) 10.56 ± 2.52 15.06 ± 1.03 <0.001* 13.00 ± 1.13 17.55 ± 2.66 <0.001*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.50 ± 13.87 136.06 ± 8.97 0.002* 127.86 ± 18.14 137.68 ± 17.39 0.166
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 69.50 ± 9.53 76.25 ± 11.14 0.052 73.00 ± 7.53 76.20 ± 10.97 0.458
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 53.00 ± 12.95 59.81 ± 11.62 0.104 54.86 ± 17.40 61.48 ± 15.74 0.303
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 178.14 ± 37.05 175.31 ± 44.50 0.832 181.43 ± 52.21 171.25 ± 40.55 0.546
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 107.00 (72.25–128.50) 101.00 (76.25–138.00) 0.429 65.00 (45.00–164.00) 153.00 (114.75–220.25) 0.026*
HDL-C (mg/dL) 49.00 ± 12.39 51.56 ± 16.78 0.591 53.86 ± 9.01 40.55 ± 10.83 0.003*
LDL-C (mg/dL) 107.41 ± 28.40 102.06 ± 36.51 0.614 104.14 ± 38.86 100.11 ± 30.95 0.753
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 98.00 (92.50–121.25) 95.50 (89.00–106.00) 0.636 113.00 (96.00–124.00) 123.50 (104.25–167.00) 0.344
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 16.00 ± 3.60 16.31 ± 4.56 0.815 19.00 ± 10.55 18.02 ± 5.93 0.709
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.01 ± 0.27 1.19 ± 0.28 0.059 1.17 ± 0.49 1.15 ± 0.33 0.890
Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min) 79.23 ± 18.66 64.00 ± 17.66 0.016* 64.86 ± 24.69 66.80 ± 19.61 0.811
Total calcium (mg/dL) 9.03 ± 0.31 9.08 ± 0.48 0.864 9.22 ± 0.46 9.20 ± 0.35 0.850
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.39 ± 0.53 3.40 ± 0.37 0.953 3.66 ± 0.40 3.56 ± 0.57 0.677
Ca X IP product (mg2/dL2) 30.64 ± 5.07 30.81 ± 4.17 0.912 33.77 ± 4.49 32.81 ± 5.59 0.663
iPTH (pg/mL) 49.20 (32.78–64.83) 50.35 (36.13–74.60) 0.881 56.80 (37.90–75.90) 43.70 (27.00–54.40) 0.389
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.16 (0.12–0.19) 0.17 (0.12–0.20) 0.581 0.17 (0.12–0.20) 0.25 (0.18–0.38) 0.015*
Insulin (uIU/mL) 9.68 (5.64–19.54) 10.11 (6.26–13.67) 0.662 9.61 (5.05–17.91) 16.75 (9.56–29.32) 0.155
HOMA1-IR 2.56 (1.59–5.01) 2.34 (1.41–3.80) 0.791 3.34 (1.53–4.67) 4.77 (2.98–9.22) 0.165
HOMA2-IR 1.27 (0.79–2.48) 1.35 (0.81–1.81) 0.919 1.48 (0.71–2.31) 2.17 (1.36–3.91) 0.114
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 38.98 (28.29–50.67) 35.29 (25.62–44.77) 0.272 44.71 (24.14–61.15) 25.41 (20.66–32.69) <0.001*
  1. Values for continuous variables given as mean ± standard deviation and compared by Student’s t test; variables not normally distributed given as medians and interquartile range and compared by Mann–Whitney U test
  2. AS arterial stiffness, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, iPTH intact parathyroid hormone, Ca X IP product Calcium-phosphorous product HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance
  3. * P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant