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Table 2 General baseline characteristics of participants with and without T2DM

From: Introduction of the DiaGene study: clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and determinants of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes

  Primary care Outpatient clinic P value
Number of participants 1056 830  
Female sex, n (%) 494 (46.8) 380 (45.9) 0.71
Age, year, median (IQR) 65.5 (58.1–72.9) 65.9 (58.9–72.9) 0.66
Age of onset diabetes, year, median (IQR) 59 (51–67) 51 (44–59) <0.001
Duration of diabetes, year, median (IQR) 4.5 (1.2–7.9) 12.5 (7.2–17.8) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2, median (IQR) 29.0 (26.0–32.0) 30.2 (26.8–33.7) <0.001
HbA1c, mmol/mol, median (IQR) 48.6 (43.7–53.6) 56.3 (48.1–64.5) <0.001
Diabetes treatment, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 No medication 24.7 (248/1004/52) 12.0 (92/768/62) <0.001
 Oral glucose-lowering agents 72.9 (732/1004/52) 53.1 (408/768/62) <0.001
 Insulin 8.6 (86/1004/52) 63.3 (486/768/62) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg, median (IQR) 146 (133–159) 134 (126–143) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg, median (IQR) 79 (72–86) 75 (70–80) <0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR) 4.2 (3.6–4.9) 4.1 (3.6–4.6) 0.047
Triglycerides, mmol/L, median (IQR) 1.4 (0.9–1.9) 1.5 (1.0–2.0) 0.104
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.002
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR) 2.5 (2.0–3.1) 2.1 (1.7–2.6) <0.001
Creatinine, µmol/L, median (IQR) 76 (64–88) 81 (67–95) <0.001
eGFR < 60 mL/min % (n/n available/n-missing) 16.4 (160/978/78) 27.2 (212/778/52) <0.001
Cardiovascular disease, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 Any macrovascular disease 34.8 (335/963/93) 41.9 (325/775/55) 0.002
 Ischemic heart disease 25.2 (252/1000/56) 31.5 (245/778/52) 0.004
 Ischemic brain disease 12.7 (124/973/83) 11.1 (87/784/46) 0.302
 Peripheral arterial disease 9.2 (88/958/98) 12.7 (105/825/5) 0.0181
Microvascular diabetes complications, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 Any microvascular disease 20.7 (172/830/226) 48.2 (389/807/23) <0.001
 Diabetic retinopathy 6.1 (59/962/94) 30.5 (249/816/15) <0.001
 Diabetic nephropathy 15.4 (134/868/188) 31.0 (253/816/15) <0.001
 Neuropathy Unknown 31.2 (238/762/68) N/A
Family history, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 First-degree relative with T2DM 61.4 (586/955/101) 68.2 (518/759/71) 0.003
 First-degree relative with CVD 67.6 (608/899/157) 69.2 (478/691/139) 0.712
 Any relative with early-onset CVD 45.0 (436/968/88) 45.0 (344/764/66) 1.0
Descent
 Caucasian descent, % (n/n-available/n-missing) 90.3 (892/988/132 ) 94.0 (721/767/63) 0.005
 Age of death father, year, median (IQR) 73 (65–82) 73 (65–82) 0.728
 Age of death mother, year, median (IQR) 79 (72–87) 77 (69–85) 0.055
  1. Table 2 shows baseline characteristics of participants from the DiaGene study in both primary care and hospital-based outpatient clinic
  2. BMI body mass index, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-formula, IQR interquartile range, n-total total number of participants for whom information was available, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus