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Table 1 General baseline characteristics of participants with and without T2DM

From: Introduction of the DiaGene study: clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and determinants of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes

  Cases Controls P value
Number of participants 1886 854  
Female sex, n (%) 874 (46.4) 511 (59.8) <0.001
Age, year, median (IQR) 65.7 (58.5–72.9) 64.9 (60.4–69.4) 0.72
Age of onset diabetes, year, median (IQR) 55 (47–63) N/A N/A
Duration of diabetes, year, median (IQR) 8.1 (2.8–13.5) N/A N/A
BMI, kg/m2, median (IQR) 29.5 (26.4–32.7) 25.5 (23.3–27.7) <0.001
HbA1c, mmol/mol, median (IQR) 50.8 (43.7–57.9) 37.7 (36.1–39.3) <0.001
Diabetes treatment, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 No glucose-lowering medication 19.2 (340/1772/114) N/A N/A
 Oral glucose-lowering agent 64.3 (1140/1773/113) N/A N/A
 Insulin 32.3 (572/1772/114) N/A N/A
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg, median (IQR) 140 (129–151) 137 (124–150) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg, median (IQR) 78 (71–85) 82 (76–89) <0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR) 4.2 (3.6–4.8) 5.6 (4.9–6.2) <0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L, median (IQR) 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) <0.001
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) <0.001
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR) 2.3 (1.8–2.8) 3.5 (2.9–4.1) <0.001
Creatinine, µmol/L, median (IQR) 78 (66–91) 72 (63–81) <0.001
eGFR < 60 mL/min, % (n/n-available/n-missing) 21.2 (372/1756/130) 5.0 (40/795/59) <0.001
Cardiovascular disease, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 Any macrovascular disease 38.0 (660/1738/148) 8.3 (68/824/30) <0.001
 Ischemic heart disease 28.0 (497/1778/108) 4.9 (41/842/12) <0.001
 Ischemic brain disease 12.0 (211/1757/129) 1.4 (12/840/14) <0.001
 Peripheral arterial disease 10.8 (193/1783/103) 2.2 (18/823/31) <0.001 
Microvascular diabetes complications, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 Any microvascular disease 34.3 (561/1637/249) N/A N/A
 Diabetic retinopathy 17.3 (308/1778/108) N/A N/A
 Diabetic nephropathy 23.0 (387/1684/202) N/A N/A
Family history, % (n/n-available/n-missing)
 First-degree relative with T2DM 64.4 (1104/1714/172) 33.3 (269/809/45) <0.001
 First-degree relative with CVD 68.3 (1086/1590/296) 68.7 (519/755/99) 0.87
 Any relative with early-onset CVD 45.0 (780/1732/154) 41.5 (342/825 29) 0.09
Descent
 Caucasian descent, % (n/n-available/n-missing) 91.9 (1613/1755) 96.1 (810/843/11) <0.001
 Age of death father, year, median (IQR) 73 (65–82) 75 (67–84) <0.001
 Age of death mother, year, median (IQR) 78 (70–86) 81 (73–89) <0.001
  1. Table 1 shows baseline characteristics of participants from the DiaGene study
  2. BMI body mass index, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-formula, IQR interquartile range, n-total total number of participants for whom information was available, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus